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Research Bibliography

Items sorted alphabetically by Author.

  1. Abenhaim L, Rossignol M, Vaalat J et al. The role of activity in the therapeutic management of back pain: Report of the Paris International Task Force on Back Pain. Spine. 25(4S Suppl.): 1S-33S, 2000. Peer Reviewed.

    (This is an excellent review article that mentions Feldenkrais Method as one of 20 or so approaches to working with back pain. This is not an experimental study)

  2. Alexander A. Perceived pain and disability decreases after Feldenkrais' Awareness Through Movement. Masters Thesis. Cal State, Northridge, June 2006.

    Movement method for motor learning was effective in decreasing pain perception and disability of adults who self-reported experiencing chronic low back pain. Subjects, staff members of California State University Northridge, were voluntarily recruited for this study using email and word of mouth. Final sample (N=12) was comprised of males and females, aged 35 to 67 years (average age was 51.833). The intervention consisted of a total of eleven 45-minute Awareness Through Movement classes offered over a 5-week period. Participants were free to come to all 11 classes, and average class participation was 10.25. Pain was assessed using the Visual Analogue Scale and disability was measured using the Oswestry Disability index questionnaire, both administered pre and post intervention. Multivariate Analyses of Variance showed significant differences (p < .05) pre and post testing and the investigation concluded that the Feldenkrais method was effective in reducing pain perception and in decreasing disability in a population experiencing chronic low back pain. This research paper supports the use of the Feldenkrais method for decreasing pain and increasing function in daily activities for adults experiencing chronic low back pain.

  3. Ann J. Individuals with dementia learn new habits and are empowered through the Feldenkrais method. [Journal Article, Case Study] Alzheimer's Care Quarterly. 2006 Oct-Dec; 7(4): 278-86. (29 ref) . Peer Reviewed.

    journal article - case study. Nursing.

  4. Archer, Shirley. Feldenkrais Method Complements Martial Arts. IDEA Fitness Journal Mar 2007, Vol. 4 Issue 2, p87 1/6p.

    Abstract:The article claims that the Feldenkrais Method and martial arts complement each other. According to the article, there are several pioneers of the modern body-mind-spirit movement who trained in East Asian fitness disciplines, like yoga or martial arts. Moshe Feldenkrais, creator of the Feldenkrais Method, opened a judo school in France in the 1930s, which is the first European one in the country. Students in his school learned that the practices complement each other.

  5. Balduzzi, David; Tononi, Giulio. Integrated Information in Discrete Dynamical Systems: Motivation and Theoretical Framework. PLoS Computational Biology, Jun 2008, Vol. 4(6): 1-18.

    Subjects: DYNAMICS; GESTALT psychology; MECHANICS, Analytic; FUNCTIONAL analysis; FELDENKRAIS method; APPERCEPTION

  6. Baniel A. . New possibilities: a revolutionary approach for transforming the lives of children with special needs. [Journal Article, Case Study, Pictorial] Massage & Bodywork. 2006 Dec-2007 Jan; [21]([6]): 66-8, 70, 72 passim..

    Special needs children challenge therapists to be innovative. Read how the Anat Baniel Method works in concert with this population's capabilities.

  7. Bann, Carla M.; Sirois, Fuschia M.; Walsh, Edith G. Provider Support in Complementary and Alternative Medicine: Exploring the Role of Patient Empowerment. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine, Jul2010, Vol. 16(7): 745-752 10.1089/acm.2009.0381.

    Subjects: MEDICAL personnel & patient -- Research; ALTERNATIVE medicine specialists; PATIENT-centered care; SELF-efficacy; CONFIRMATORY factor analysis; STRUCTURAL equation modeling

  8. Batson G. Effect of group delivery of Feldenkrais Awareness Through Movement on balance, functional mobility, and quality of life in adults post-stroke. PhD dissertation, Rocky Mountain University, 2006. Advisors: Stephens J and Deutsch JE.

    Abstract. Background and Purpose: The Feldenkrais Method® is a complementary approach to motor learning that shares tenets with dynamic systems theory. The efficacy of the Method on balance in persons with neurological disabilities has been tested in only one controlled trial with people with multiple sclerosis. The purpose of this study is to report the outcome on balance of 10 patients with chronic stroke who underwent a trial of Feldenkrais Awareness Through Movement (ATM) training. Methodology: Subjects included 7 men and 3 women (ages 50 – 78), 1 to 3 years post-cortical stroke. Primary outcome measures were the Berg Balance Scale (BBS) and the Timed Movement Battery (TMB), with secondary outcomes being the Stroke Impact Scale (SIS) for quality of life, and the Movement Imagery Questionnaire (MIQ) for ability to imagine motor tasks. Subjects received 18 ATM sessions (1.5 hours each) over a 6 week period. Results: Comparison of double baseline pretest with immediate posttest scores of 8 out of 10 subjects showed statistical significance for the group- and individual scores for the BBS (Z score = 2.53, p = .0057). Pretest-MIQ scores correlated positively with posttest improvements on the BBS. Scores decreased significantly on the TMB for 4 complex movements (p = averaged over 5 subjects), and correlated with self-reported improvements in balance on the SIS. Discussion and Conclusion: This trial shows that for select individuals post-stroke, an intensive trial of ATM results in functional improvements in balance and movement efficiency. The ability to imagine movement corresponds with actual and perceived gains in functional mobility using a group-delivered, exploratory method of perceptuo-motor training. Key words: Balance, Feldenkrais, Stroke, Motor Learning

  9. Batson G and Deutsch J. Effects of Feldenkrais Awareness Through Movement on Balance in Adults With Chronic Neurological Deficits Following Stroke: A Preliminary Study. Complementary Health Practice Review, Vol. 10 No. 3, October 2005 203-210 DOI: 10.1177/1533210105285516 ©2005 Sage Publications. Peer Reviewed.

    The Feldenkrais Method is a complementary approach to motor learning that purports to induce change in chronic motor behaviors. This preliminary study describes the effects of a Feldenkrais program on balance and quality of life in individuals with chronic neuro¬logical deficits following stroke. Two male (48 and 53 years old) and 2 female partici¬pants (61 and 62 years old), 1 to 2.5 years post-stroke, participated as a group in a 6-week Feldenkrais program. Pretest and posttest evaluations of the Berg Balance Scale (BBS), the Dynamic Gait Index (DGI), and the Stroke Impact Scale (SIS) were administered. Data were analyzed using a Wilcoxon signed-rank test. DGI and BBS scores improved an average of 55.2% (p = .033) and 11% (p = .034), respectively. SIS percentage recovery improved 35%. Findings suggest that gains in functional mobility are possible for indi¬viduals with chronic stroke using Feldenkrais movement therapy in a group setting. Keywords: Feldenkrais; balance; stroke; complementary medicine. Instrumentation: Movement Imagery Questionnaire (MIQ) (Hall and Pongrac), Dynamic Gait Index (DGI) (Wrisley et al), Berg Balance Scale, Stroke Impact Scale (SIS), Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE) (Folstein et al)

  10. Batson, Glenna. Revisiting Overuse Injuries in Dance in View of Motor Learning and Somatic Models of Distributed Practice. Journal of Dance Medicine & Science 2007, Vol. 11 Issue 3, p70 6p. Peer Reviewed.

    Abstract: One hallmark of dance education is rigorous and repetitive physical practice. Of the many unifying theories of motor learning, the "power law of practice" states that repetitive practice of physical movements is a necessary ingredient in improving performance. Compelling evidence exists, however, showing that practice conditions where rest intervals are interspersed between movement repetitions ("distributed practice") play a strategic role in the acquisition and consolidation of learning motor skills. Further, repetition without adequate rest is implicated in overuse syndrome and has injurious consequences in both the peripheral and central nervous system. This article summarizes the research from neuroscience and motor learning on distributed practice conditions within the context of overuse injuries in dance. The neural consequences of repetitive movement without rest (adequate rest-to-activity ratios) are discussed. Schedules designed to promote motor skill learning and avoid overuse (adopted in somatic education, sports, and martial arts) are reviewed in the light of the current philosophy underlying dance practice schedules. Finally, the paper points to need for future research in designing protocols with higher rest-to-activity ratios in dance classes.

  11. Bearman D, Shafarman S. Feldenkrais Method in the Treatment of Chronic Pain: A Study of Efficacy and Cost Effectiveness. Am. J. Pain Management. 9 (1): 22-27, 1999. Peer Reviewed.

    A preliminary study was undertaken to determine both the efficacy and cost effectiveness of the Feldenkrais Method for treatment of Medicaid recipients with chronic pain at the Santa Barbara Regional Health Authority (SBRHA). SBRHA staff wished to offer treatment for chronic pain patients beyond what is provided for in the Medicaid scope of benefits. Conventional intensive chronic pain treatment programs costs range from $7,000 to $30,000 and are not covered by regular Medicaid benefits. Patients with chronic headaches and/or musculoskeletal problems were enrolled in the study. Seven patients began the program; all completed it. Patient satisfaction, function, and perception of pain were evaluated by using the National Pain Data Batik (NPDB) protocol of the American Academy of Pain Management. Participants reported more mobility and decreased perception of pain, both immediately after the program and in a one-year follow-up questionnaire. Results compared quite favorable with NPDB comparison groups. Cost effectiveness calculations were based on Medicaid costs for one-year periods pre- and post-intervention. Patient costs dropped from an average of $141 per month to $82 per month. This represents a 40% savings

  12. Ben-Arye E; Katz I; Hochman O; Hermoni D. Exploring feldenkrais practitioners' attitudes toward clinical research. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine (J ALTERN COMPLEMENT MED), 2007 Jul-Aug; 13(6): 593-4 (5 ref). Peer Reviewed.

    Journal article - letter, research, tables/charts. Attitude of Health Personnel, Depression – Therapy, Feldenkrais Method, Research, Alternative Therapies

  13. Bennett JL, Brown BJ, Finney SA, and Sarantakis CP. Effects of a Feldenkrais Based Mobility Program on Function of a Healthy Elderly Sample. Abstract in Geriatrics, publication of Geriatric section of APTA. Presented at CSM in Boston in February 1998.
  14. Bishop, Felicity L.; Yardley, Lucy; Lewith, George T. Treatment appraisals and beliefs predict adherence to complementary therapies: A prospective study using a dynamic extended self-regulation model. British Journal of Health Psychology, Nov 2008, Vol. 13(4): 701-718.

    Subjects: PSYCHOTHERAPY; BELIEF & doubt -- Psychological aspects; PERCEPTION -- Psychological aspects; HOMEOPATHY; LIFE change events; ALTERNATIVE medicine; MEDICAL care -- Psychological aspects; PSYCHIATRY -- Research; PSYCHOLOGY, Applied

  15. Blair, R. J. R.; Mitchell, D. G. V. Psychopathy, attention and emotion. Psychological Medicine. Apr 2009, Vol. 39(4): 543-555.

    Subjects: PSYCHOPATHY; ATTENTION; PERSONALITY & emotions; DELINQUENT behavior; EMOTIONS & cognition; FELDENKRAIS method

  16. Booth B. Back to the balance sheet... body therapy techniques ... Rolfing... the Feldenkrais method... applied kinesiology. Nursing Times. 1995 Apr 19-25; 91(16): 44-5. (12 ref). Review Article.

    Continuing our complementary medicine series, Brian Booth looks at three body techniques that aim to restore lost muscular or postural function.

  17. Bost H, Burges S, Russell R, Ruttinger H, Schlafke U. Feldstudie zur wiiksamkeit der Feldenkrais-Methode bei MS - betroffenen. Deutsche Multiple Sklerose Gesellschaft. Saarbrucken, Germany. 1994. (Summary available in English translated by Hans Hartmann, Sc.D.).
  18. Bracciante LE. The body in motion: movement education provides new models for wellness. Body Sense. 2003 Spring; 3(1): 14-6. Review Article.

    F. Matthias Alexander, Moshe Feldenkrais and Milton Trager believed in the mind/body connection. Learn how practitioners from their schools of thought are helping others reshape their lives.

  19. Brand, CS.. Stress Management in Cardiac Rehabilitation: Observations on Attention and Emotion. Paper presented at The Annual Conference of the Feldenkrais Guild of North America, Los Angeles, CA September, 1998.
  20. Brown, E and Kegerris S. Electromyographic Activity of Trunk Musculature During a Feldenkrais Awareness through Movement Lesson. Isokinetics and Exercise Science. 1(4): 216-221, 1991. Peer Reviewed.
  21. Bruce, F.M. Making sense in movement : the dynamics of self-learning and self-change. [Microform Thesis or Dissertation] Kinesiology Publications, University of Oregon Eugene, OR, 2004, 3 microfiche (234 fr.).

    The purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between self-generated movement and processes of self-learning and self-change. It is hypothesized that: 1) Moving is a primary mode of interacting with a world that we construct through our interactions; 2) self-moving is a way of knowing, which structures both the knowing self and the perception of personal reality; 3) self-change is a process of self-learning which changes the ways in which the self perceives and interacts with personal reality, the nature of which reality changes in a mutually causal relationship with processes of self-change. This study is a philosophical inquiry in narrative form, informed by my experience as a dancer and a practitioner of The Feldenkrais Method of Somatic Education. Dynamical Systems Theory is employed as a concept-generating metaphor, by means of which personal experience is interwoven with theoretical approaches to cognition as embodied and environmentally embedded. A conceptual structure is developed in which the cognizing self, as a dynamical system, is defined as an environmentally dependent self-organizing, complex of structural change, absent any central controller. The cognitive domain encompasses all the possible functional interactions, where function is taken to comprise moving, sensing, feeling, and thinking. The integrated nature of function stipulates that: 1) Each component of function represents and postulates the others and functions as a whole; 2) all human actions, including processes of abstract thought, are accompanied by distinct patterns of muscular activity. Thus, a change in habitual patterns of movement is reflected in a change in habitual patterns of function, and a change in any other aspect of function is reflected in changes in patterns of movement . The implications for processes of learning and change are discussed, together with potential pedagogical applications. General Note Thesis (Ph.D.) Texas Woman's University, 2003; includes bibliography (leaves 210-223). Available from Kinesiology Publications (formerly Microform Publications), IIHSP, 1243 University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403-1243

  22. Buchanan PA. Ulrich BD. The Feldenkrais Method: a dynamic approach to changing motor behavior. [Review: Tutorial] Research Quarterly for Exercise & Sport. 72(4):315-23, 2001 Dec. Peer Reviewed.

    This tutorial describes the Feldenkrais Method and points to parallels with a dynamic systems theory (DST) approach to motor behavior Feldenkrais is an educational system designed to use movement and perception to foster individualized improvement in function. Moshe Feldenkrais , its originator, believed his method enhanced people's ability to discover flexible and adaptable behavior and that behaviors are self-organized. Similarly, DST explains that a human-environment system is continually adapting to changing conditions and assembling behaviors accordingly. Despite little research, Feldenkrais is being used with people of widely ranging ages and abilities in varied settings. We propose that DSTprovides an integrated foundation for research on the Feldenkrais Method, suggest research questions, and encourage researchers to test the fundamental tenets of Feldenkrais. [References: 50]

  23. Buchanan, P.A., Ulrich, B.D. Attending to the process of changing behaviour: a reply to Ives' commentary. [Article] Research quarterly for exercise and sport (Reston, Va.) 74(2), June 2003, 124-126. Peer Reviewed.

    Letter responding to a commentary on "The Feldenkrais Method: a dynamic approach to changing motor behaviour" by Jeffrey C. Ives which is published in the same issue.

  24. Call S, Evans K, Glass M, Gould C, Lowe J, and Stephens J. Awareness Through Movement as a Method of Improving Coordination, Efficiency of Movement and Gait, Fatigue and Quality of Life in Individuals with Multiple Sclerosis. Masters Thesis at Widener University, Institute for Physical Therapy Education, May 1998.
  25. Cheever, Olivia Lowell. Education as Transformation in American Psychiatry: From Voices of Control to Voices of Connection. PhD dissertation in Education, Harvard University, Cambridge MA. 1995 Qualitative.
  26. Chinn J, Trujillo D, Kegerreis S, Worrell T. Effect of a Feldenkrais Intervention on Symptomatic Subjects Performing a Functional Reach. Isokinetics and Exercise Science. 1994, 4(4): 131-136. Peer Reviewed.
  27. Connors K and Grenough P. Redevelopment of the Sense of Self following Stroke, using the Feldenkrais Method. Poster presented at the Feldenkrais Annual Research Forum, Seattle WA, August, 2004.
  28. Connors KA, Galea MP, Said CM. Feldenkrais Method Balance Classes Improve Balance in Older Adults: A Controlled Trial. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2009 Jun 24. Peer Reviewed.

    Rehabilitation Sciences Research Centre, School of Physiotherapy, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010, Australia. .(JavaScript must be enabled to view this email address). The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of Feldenkrais Method balance classes on balance and mobility in older adults. This was a prospective non-randomized controlled study with pre/post measures. The setting for this study was the general community. A convenience sample of 26 community-dwelling older adults (median age 75 years) attending Feldenkrais Method balance classes formed the Intervention group. Thirty-seven volunteers were recruited for the Control group (median age 76.5 years). A series of Feldenkrais Method balance classes (the 'Getting Grounded Gracefully' series), two classes per week for 10 weeks, were conducted. Main outcome measures were Activities-Specific Balance Confidence (ABC) questionnaire, Four Square Step Test (FSST), self- selected gait speed (using GAITRite instrumented gait mat). At re-testing, the Intervention group showed significant improvement on all of the measures (ABC, P = 0.016, FSST, P = 0.001, gait speed, P < 0.001). The Control group improved significantly on one measure (FSST, P < 0.001). Compared to the Control group, the Intervention group made a significant improvement in their ABC score (P = 0.005), gait speed (P = 0.017) and FSST time (P = 0.022). These findings suggest that Feldenkrais Method balance classes may improve mobility and balance in older adults. PMID: 19553385

  29. Connors KA, Galea MP, Said CM, Remedios LJ. Feldenkrais Method balance classes are based on principles of motor learning and postural control retraining: a qualitative research study. Physiotherapy, 2010 (article in press – need specific issue and page reference). Peer Reviewed.
  30. Cottingham JT and J Maitland. A Three Paradigm Treatment Model Using Soft Tissue Mobilization And Guided Movement Awareness Techniques For A Patient With Chronic Low Back Pain: A Case Study. J Orthopedic Sports Phys Ther. 1997, 26: 155-167. Peer Reviewed.

    Uses Alexander Technique as a guided movement awareness treatment component.

  31. Coynel, David; Marrelec, Guillaume; Perlbarg, et al. Dynamics of motor-related functional integration during motor sequence learning. NeuroImage, Jan 2010, Vol. 49(1): p759-766.

    List of authors cont: Vincent; Pélégrini-Issac, Mélanie; Van de Moortele, Pierre-François; Ugurbil, Kamil; Doyon, Julien; Benali, Habib; Lehéricy, Stéphane. Subjects: Diagnostic Imaging Centers; MOTOR learning; FELDENKRAIS method; BRAIN -- Physiology; MAGNETIC resonance imaging; BRAIN -- Imaging; IMAGING systems in medicine; AFFERENT pathways

  32. De Rosa C, Porterfield J. A Physical Therapy Model for the Treatment of Low Back Pain. Physical Therapy. 72(4): 261- 272, 1992 Mentions Feldenkrais Method as treatment option.
  33. Dean JR, Yuen SA, and Barrows SA. Effects of A Feldenkrais ATM Sequence on Fibromyalgia Patients. A study reported to the CA-PTA in 1997 also presented at the NA Feldenkrais Guild Conference in August, 1997.

    The purpose of this study was to describe the effects of a Feldenkrais Awareness Through Movement® (ATM) sequences of fibromyalgia patients. Subjects met twice a week for a one hour group ATM lesson, and were instructed to follow through daily with practice tapes. After two months, subjects were placed on a one month home program. Pre-test and post-test data, which included a modified Fibromyalgia Impact Assessment (FIA) questionnaire, a pain scale, photographical postural analysis, and observational video analysis of walking, were collected and analyzed on five fibromyalgia patients. A paired T-Test on the modified FIA and other descriptive analyses showed moderate improvement in the subjects. It was concluded that the Feldenkrais Method had potential value as a possible adjunct to the physical therapy treatment of selected fibromyalgia patients.

  34. Deig, Denise. Self Image in Relationship to Feldenkrais Awareness Through Movement Classes. Independent Study Project. University of Indianapolis, Krannert Graduate School of Physical Therapy, Indianapolis, Indiana. 1994.

    Demonstrates changes in self image assesed by clay images, after Awareness through Movement training Qualitative

  35. DellaGrotte J, Ridi R, Landi M, Stephens J. Postural improvement using core integration to lengthen myofascia. J Bodyw Mov Ther. 2008 Jul;12(3):231-45.

    Postural organization is controlled by the central nervous system in conjunction with the skeletal, muscular, and fascial systems. This paper explores the effects on static and dynamic postural misalignment of a neuromotor re-education intervention. In total, 13 control and 14 experimental subjects with postural deviations were studied. An individualized Dellagrotte core-integration intervention was performed with subjects in the experimental group over a period of 2 months. Twenty-five postural parameters were assessed pre- and post-intervention to give a global postural assessment score. There was significant improvement in the global postural score for the experimental group compared to the control group. Six core pathways are described along with the theoretical background from which they were developed.

  36. Dennenberg N and Reeves GD. Changes in Health Locus of Control and Activities of Daily Living in a Physical Therapy Clinic Using the Feldenkrais Method of Sensory Motor Education. Masters thesis for Program in Physical Therapy, Oakland University, Rochester, Michigan. 1995.

    Notes several changes in Health locus of control in the Feldenkrais group. No control group

  37. Dunn PA and Rogers DK. Feldenkrais Sensory Imagery and Forward Reach. Perceptual and Motor Skills. 91:755-57, 2000. Peer Reviewed.

    To investigate the effect of sensory imagery on subsequent movement , a unilateral Fleldenkrais lesson of imaging a soft bristle brush passing over one half of the body and in which no movement occurred, was given to 12 naive subjects. Forward flexion for each side of the body was measured at a sit-and-reach box. For 8 and 10 subjects who reported the perception of a side as being longer and lighter following the sensory imagery, there was also a significant increase in the forward flexion range on that side.

  38. Edwards I, Jones M, Hillier S. The interpretation of experience and its relationship to body movement: a clinical reasoning perspective. Man Ther 11(1): 2-10, 2006.

    In this paper, we present findings from literature which suggests an intrinsic relationship in patients with chronic pain between the development of rigid and limited perspectives based on the interpretation of experience and the development of decreased repertoires of movement patterns. We present a research-based clinical reasoning model for conceptualising the teaching of movement for patients with chronic pain and contend that therapists can intentionally teach movement using fundamentally different reasoning and learning processes. We propose that these different kinds of learning will assist clinicians to translate the findings of diverse and complex pain research to clinical practice and, in particular, the teaching of these patients both new perspectives and movement patterns.

  39. Elgelid HS. Feldenkrais and Body Image. Unpublished Masters Thesis, University of Central Arkansas, Conway, AK, December, 1999.

    This study suggests improvements in body image as measured on the semantic differentiation scale, following ATM lessons, compared to controls receiving tutoring. Four subjects, crossover design. Qualitative

  40. Emerich KA. Nontraditional tools helpful in the treatment of certain types of voice disturbances. [23 refs]. [Journal Article. Review. Review: Tutorial] Current Opinion in Otolaryngology & Head & Neck Surgery. 11(3):149-53, 2003 Jun. Peer Reviewed.

    Voice therapy has evolved considerably over the past decade. Our field has learned to draw from other disciplines to help facilitate the restoration of vocal function by implementing a more holistic approach and utilizing principles of motor learning to create our therapy programs. Clinicians have learned to recognize that the voice is more than just the larynx. Rather, it is a whole body system, and breakdowns in systems through out the body can be responsible for vocal disturbances. This review will cover the nontraditional approaches that aid in treating certain voice disorders that often are not discussed in textbooks or classrooms. Facilitating techniques include principles from singing and acting voice production, Feldenkrais , Alexander technique, Qigong, and circumlaryngeal massage. Institution: National Center for Voice and Speech, Denver Center for the Performing Arts, 1245 Champa Street, Denver, CO 80204, USA. .(JavaScript must be enabled to view this email address)

  41. Euler B. Integration of experience and behavior in physical therapy. Krankengymnastik. 54(1): 28-34, 2002. (In German).
  42. Fan, Jin; Gu, Xiaosi; Guise, Kevin G.; Liu, Xun; Fossella, John; Wang, Hongbin; Posner, Michael I. Testing the behavioral interaction and integration of attentional networks. Brain & Cognition. Jul 2009, Vol. 70(2): 209-220.

    Subjects: INTEGRATION (Theory of knowledge); CONFLICT management; FUNCTIONAL analysis; FELDENKRAIS method

  43. Feixas, Guillem, Botella, Luis. Psychotherapy Integration: Reflections and Contributions From a Constructivist Epistemology. Journal of Psychotherapy Integration. 14(2):192-222, June 2004. Peer Reviewed.

    Abstract. This article describes the different traditions within the psychotherapy integration movement. It begins by providing a constructivist view of the factors that influenced the movement's development. It distinguishes among pragmatic, theoretically guided, and systematic technical eclecticisms. Also, it differentiates between hybrid and extended models of theoretical integration. Finally, the article covers the common factors perspective. For each of these types of psychotherapy integration, a series of constructivist contributions is presented. Further, constructivism has generated a new modality of psychotherapy integration known as theoretically progressive integration, based on the combination of approaches that are epistemologically compatible.

  44. Frank, Ruella. Body Awareness: The development of Self-Perception. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering. Vol 58(6-B), Dec 1997, pp.3315. Dissertation Abstract: 1997-95024-173.
  45. Gard G. Body awareness therapy for patients with fibromyalgia and chronic pain. (DISABIL REHABIL), 2005 Jun 17; 27(12): 725-8 (27 ref). Peer Reviewed.

    journal article – review. Minor Subjects: Feldenkrais Method; Health Status; Quality of Life; Cost Benefit Analysis; Psychosocial Aspects of Illness; Emotions; Clinical Assessment Tools Abstract: There are several therapies designed to increase body awareness. They are commonly known as body awareness therapies (BAT) and include Basic BAT, Mensendieck and Feldenkrais therapy. A focus on emotions is important in all these therapies. In this article the aim and development of Basic BAT is described together with evaluations of treatments including Basic BAT. Multidisciplinary studies have shown that Basic BAT can increase health-related quality of life and cost-effectiveness. However Basic BAT needs to be further studied in relation to patients with fibromyalgia (FM) and chronic pain. Studies so far indicate that Basic BAT has positive effects.

  46. Gayman, Cynthia. Body Consciousness: A Philosophy of Mindfulness and Somaesthetics. Journal of Speculative Philosophy, 2008, Vol. 22(3): 225-227.

    Subjects: BOOKS -- Reviews; SOMESTHESIA; NONFICTION; BODY Consciousness: A Philosophy of Mindfulness & Somaesthetics (Book); SHUSTERMAN, Richard

  47. Gilman M, Yaruss JS. Stuttering and relaxation: applications for somatic education in stuttering treatment. J Fluency Disorders. 25(1): 59-76, 2000. Peer Reviewed.
  48. Gilman, Marina. Reduction of Tension in Stuttering through Somatic Re-Education. Masters thesis at Northwestern University, Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders, Evanston, IL. 1997.
  49. Ginsburg C. The Shake-a-Leg Body Awareness Training Program: Dealing with Spinal Injury and Recovery in a New Setting. Somatics. Spring/Summer, 1986 pp31-42.
  50. Ginsburg C. Body-Image, Movement and Consciousness: Examples from a Somatic Practice in the Feldenkrais Method. J. Consciousness Studies. 6(2-3): 79-91, 1999. Qualitative. Peer Reviewed.

    From the journal abstract) We think of consciousness as a thing. Observation of our experience indicates that we are actually consciousing, and that experiencing is closely related to movement and the muscular sense. The position of this paper is that mind and body are not two entities related to each other but an inseparable whole while functioning. From concrete examples from the Feldenkrais Method, it is shown that changes in the organization of movement and functioning are intimately related and that one cannot change without conscious experience. Implications for the resolution of controversies in the field of consciousness studies and the neurosciences are suggested.

  51. Goldfarb, Lawrence Wm. ARTICULATING CHANGES: Preliminary Notes to a Theory for Feldenkrais. pp159, Feldenkrais Resources, Berkeley, CA. 1990.

    Excellent basic explanation of how Feldenkrais Methods (ATM and Functional Integration) may work

  52. Goldfarb, Lawrence Wm. UNDERSTANDING STANDING. PhD. Dissertation in Kinesiology, University of Illinois at Champaign- Urbana, Illinois, 1994.
  53. Goldman Schuyler, K. Awareness through movement lessons as a catalyst for change. The Feldenkrais Journal: 15, 39-46, 2003.
  54. Goldman Schuyler, K. Kittens and technology marketing: A somatic approach to career coaching. Somatics, 15(2), 29-38, 2007.
  55. Goldman Schuyler, K. Clinical sociology, career coaching, and somatic learning. In S. Dasgupta (Ed.), The Discourse of Applied Sociology: Volume II. Practicing perspectives (pp. 33-50). London: Anthem Press, An Imprint of Wimbledon Publishing Company.
  56. Goldman, K. L. Reflections from the mountain: Paradigms for change. OD Practitioner (Journal of the Organization Development Network). 30(1), 18-26, 1998.
  57. Goldman-Schuyler, Kathryn. A Systems Approach to Learning and Change: Cindy’s Story. Somatics 14(3): 14-23, Fall/Winter 2003-2004.

    This is a conversationally written report of the process and impact on Feldenkrais work with a 45 year old woman with Cerebral Palsy. It tracks the development of the strategy of the work, the dynamics of the process of change and concludes with some theoretical considerations and practical implications.

  58. Goldman-Schuyler, Kathryn. Increasing Leadership Integrity through Mind Training and Embodied Learning. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research 62(1): 21-38, 2010.
  59. Gutman G, Herbert C, Brown S. Feldenkrais vs Conventional Exercise for the Elderly. J Gerontology 32(5): 562-572, 1977. Peer Reviewed.

    Design problem control group which did nothing improved as much as the Feldenkrais group. Does suggest improved preception of quality of life in Feldenkrais group.

  60. Gyllensten, Amanda Lundvik; Ekdahl, Charlotte; Hansson, Lars. Long-term effectiveness of Basic Body Awareness Therapy in psychiatric outpatient care. A randomized controlled study. Advances in Physiotherapy, 2009, Vol. 11(1):2-12, 11p.

    Subjects: All Other Miscellaneous Ambulatory Health Care Services; Freestanding Ambulatory Surgical and Emergency Centers; All Other Outpatient Care Centers; MEDICAL economics; AMBULATORY medical care; PERSONALITY disorders; DEPRESSION, Mental; PHYSICAL therapy; RANDOMIZED controlled trials

  61. Hall SE, Criddle A, Ring A, Bladen C, Tapper J, Yin R, Cosgrove A, Hu Yu-Li. Study of the effects of various forms of exercise on balance in older women. Unpublished Manuscript Healthway Starter Grant, File #7672, Dept of Rehabilitation, Sir Charles Gardner Hospital, Nedlands, Western Australia, 1999.

    Abstract. People over the age of 65 account for 4% of all hospital admissions due to injuries sustained from falls. Frequency of falling increases with age. Exercise has been shown to have a positive effect on reducing the number of falls. This study compared the effects of Feldenkrais Method and Tai Chi to a no exercise control group on balance and mobility in a group of 59 randomly assigned, elderly women. Both TC and FM showed improvements in measures of quality of life, balance control, walking and activities of daily living compared to the control group.

  62. Haller, Jeffrey Scott. Sensorimotor Education and Transpersonal Psychology: Applications of the Feldenkrais Method, Aikido, and Neurolinguistic programming with the St. Joseph's University Basketball Team. pp.82 PhD. Inst. of Transpersonal Psychology, Menlo Park, CA, Published by Feldenkrais Resources, PO Box 2067, Berkeley, CA 1988. Qualitative.
  63. Hannon JC. The physics of FELDENKRAIS : part 5: unstable equilibrium and its application to movement therapy. [Journal Article: Theory, Pictorial, Tables/Charts] Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies. 2001 Jul; 5(3): 207-21. (38 ref). Peer Reviewed.

    This article, fifth in a series, explores the concept of unstable equilibrium as a form of dynamic repose. This presumes that movement best complies with the Principle of Least Effort when the initial posture incorporates maximal potential energy with minimal inertia. Such action, properly controlled, incorporates strength, dexterity and a quickened reaction time. Also introduced is the idea of reversibility; an attribute, described by Feldenkrais , indicating excellence in motor control. Different forms of gait provide a vehicle for discussion. Exercises and a sitting treatment featuring unstable equilibrium are presented.

  64. Hannon JC. The physics of FELDENKRAIS : part 4: axes, levers, struts and strain. [Journal Article: Theory, Pictorial, Tables/Charts] Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies. 2001 Apr; 5(2): 132-45. (22 ref). Peer Reviewed.

    This installment, the fourth in a series, presents information useful in harnessing the principles of physics to bodywork and movement therapy. It also provides encouragement towards developing skeletal awareness . This 'felt-sense' may help bind a better resolution of the spatial relationships of the human locomotor frame. In turn, this conception may assist in applying the Principle of Least Effort to good effect. Gravity, an unseen force of constant direction and intensity, may be another ally in our use of the Principle of Least Effort. An abstraction, the centre of gravity, may be useful in refining our sense of self as we orient and move through space. Leverage is the last concept presented; the fulcrum and common forms of leverage in the body are presented along with the idea of axes of rotation and instantaneous axes of rotation.

  65. Hannon JC. The physics of FELDENKRAIS part 3: stability. [Journal Article: Theory, Pictorial, Tables/Charts] Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies. 2000 Oct; 4(4): 261-72. (15 ref). Peer Reviewed.

    In the last article in this series, we briefly examined the Principle of Least Effort and the five forms of strain. Strain, you may recall, in physics, describes a change in the volume of a material when a force is applied. Our treatments are a blend of rotation and translation movement s of our hands with a changing mix of strains being applied onto the client's tissues. Harnessing and interweaving the various forms of strain with dexterity may aid us in improving our treatment efficacy. In this tissue, we will consider the importance of anchorage and stability in treatment, We will consider a set of 'House Rules' for improving treatment. In addition, we will explore Bernstein's concept of degrees of freedom.

  66. Hannon JC. The physics of FELDENKRAIS. Part 2: no strain, no gain. [Journal Article: Theory, Pictorial, Review, Tables/Charts] Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies. 2000 Apr; 4(2): 114-22. (10 ref). Peer Reviewed.

    In the last issue, which was the first of this series, the Principle of Least Effort was introduced. (Use the least effort necessary to achieve the maximum in efficiency). Two sitting self- awareness explorations were presented to help deepen this understanding and to encourage a visceral comprehension of another principle: Control follows awareness . This issue features additional clinical examples and an explanation of several terms of art in bodywork: stress, strain, translation and rotation. These words help to stake out the territory of bodywork. There are only five forms of strain and only two basic movement s in any form of bodywork. We shall see the practical advantages of understanding the concepts these words carry. Clinical results may be enhanced with improved physical safety to both the therapist and client. Secondly, a sure grasp of the technical meanings of these words is essential for delving further into the treatment applications of the Principle of Least Effort.

  67. Harden, N R., Swan, Melanie, King, Amie, Costa, Brienne, Barthel, Jennifer. Treatment of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome: Functional Restoration. Clinical Journal of Pain. 22(5):420-424, June 2006. Peer Reviewed.

    Abstract. In this review, the authors discuss the development of consensus-based treatment guidelines in 1997. They also synthesize the recommendations of a closed workshop held in Budapest in late 2004 that reexamined these treatment guidelines and made further and more detailed recommendations. They explore and develop the rationale for making functional restoration the pivotal treatment algorithm in the management of complex regional pain syndrome, around which all other treatments, such as psychotherapy, drugs, and interventions, revolve. The authors discuss in detail the process of functional restoration and the modalities appropriate to accomplishing that-specifically, the role of the occupational therapist, physical therapist, recreational therapist, and vocational rehabilitation specialist. Medications, interventions, and psychotherapy will be covered in other sections of this series.

  68. Hertzog C. Feldenkrais: flexible bodies, flexible brains. [Journal Article, Case Study, Pictorial] Lilipoh. 2007 Spring; 12(47): 30-1.
  69. Hillier S, Porter L, Jackson K, and Petkov J. The Effects of Feldenkrais Classes on the health and function of an aging Australian sample: a pilot study. The Open Rehabilitation Journal. 2010; 3: 62-66.

    Keywords: Movement rehabilitation, Feldenkrais method, ageing, balance, motor learning Participation in regular physical activity has a variety of health benefits including increased levels of function and independence for people who are ageing. The inclusion of motor learning principles into exercise programs is proposed to increase functional benefits. The presence of these principles in the Feldenkrais Method (FM) suggests this may be a beneficial program for the ageing population. Objective: A proof of concept study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of an eight week movement class based on the FM when compared to a generic balance class. Method: A pseudo-randomized controlled pilot study was conducted in an Australian community based organization of healthy people post-retirement, n=22. Self-perceived health and functional status were measured by the Short-Form 36 (SF-36) and Patient-Specific Functional Scale (PSFS) respectively. Objective functional assessment, by a blinded assessor, included the Timed Up and Go Test (TUGT), Functional Reach Test (FRT), Single Leg Stance time (SLS) and Walk on Floor Eyes Closed (WOFEC) measures. Results: There was a significant time effect for all measures except the WOFEC. Post hoc analysis demonstrated significant improvements for both the FM and generic groups in the SF-36, PSFS and FRT and for the FM group only in the SLS test. Conclusions: Classes based on the FM are effective in improving health and functional measures in a healthy ageing population, equally so with the generic class. Considerations for future research include a randomized controlled trial in a rehabilitation setting, with a larger sample size and appropriate measures to detect relevant change in functional levels.

  70. Hopper C, Kolt GS, McConville JC. The effects of Feldenkrais Awareness Through Movement on hamstring length, flexibility and perceived exertion. J Bodywork Movement Therapies 3(4): 238-247, 1999. Peer Reviewed.

    Although the Feldenkrais Method is rapidly gaining popularity among health professionals, only a small body of empirical research has documented its efficacy. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effects of the Feldenkrais Method on flexibility, perceived exertion and hamstring length. In Study 1, 79 healthy participants undertook measurements of flexibility (sit and reach test), perceived exertion (Borg's Rating of Perceived Exertion 6-20) and hamstring length (active knee extension test) prior to being randomly allocated into a Feldenkrais or control group. The same measurements were taken after the group intervention (a Feldenkrais Awareness Through Movement lesson, or control procedure). Although the Feldenkrais participants improved significantly more in sit and reach measurements than their control counterparts, no differences between the groups were found for measures of perceived exertion or hamstring length. In Study 2, a subsample of 39 participants took part in a further three intervention sessions with the three measures being take again prior to and after the fourth (final) intervention. No group differences were found for any of the outcome indicators across time. These findings are discussed in terms of implications for further research and health care practice.

  71. Hunte, Carola; Richers, Sebastian. Lipids and membrane protein structures. Current Opinion in Structural Biology, Aug 2008, Vol. 18(4): 406-411.

    Subjects: MEMBRANE proteins; LIPIDS; ROLFING; FELDENKRAIS method; CRYSTALLIZATION; G proteins; ADRENALINE -- Receptors

  72. Huntley A, Ernst E. Complementary and alternative therapies for treating multiple sclerosis symptoms: a systematic review. [Journal Article: Systematic Review, Tables/Charts] Complementary Therapies in Medicine. 2000 Jun; 8(2): 97-105. (42 ref). Peer Reviewed.

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic disease of the central nervous system without a known cure. Thus the role of complementary and alternative therapies (CATs) for the management of symptoms lies in palliative care and this is borne out by the popularity of these treatments amongst MS sufferers.This review is aimed at determining whether this use is supported by evidence of effectiveness from rigorous clinical trials. Database literature searches were performed and papers were extracted in a pre-defined manner. Twelve randomized controlled trials were located that investigated a CAT for MS: nutritional therapy (4), massage (1), Feldenkrais bodywork (1), reflexology (1), magnetic field therapy (2), neural therapy (1) and psychological counselling (2).The evidence is not compelling for any of these therapies, with many trials suffering from significant methodological flaws. There is evidence to suggest some benefit of nutritional therapy for the physical symptoms of MS. Magnetic field therapy and neural therapy appear to have a short-term beneficial effect on the physical symptoms of MS. Massage/bodywork and psychological counselling seem to improve depression, anxiety and self-esteem. The effectiveness for other CATs is unproven at this time. In all the CATs examined further investigations are needed in the form of rigorous large-scale trials.

  73. Hutchinson, Marcia G. TRANSFORMING BODY IMAGE. Learning to Love the Body You Have. The Crossing Press. Freedom CA 95019, 1985 Developed from doctoral dissertation: "The effect of a treatment based on the use of guided visuo-kinesthetic imagery on the alteration of negative body cathexis in women." Boston University, 1981. Qualitative.
  74. Ideberg G and Werner M. Gait Assessment by Three Dimensional Motion Analysis in Subjects with Chronic Low Back Pain Treated According to Feldenkrais Principles. An exploratory study. Unpublished Manuscript, Lund University, Department of Physical Therapy, Lund, Sweden, 1995.
  75. Irani SF, Lebonette LS, Morley JD, Pankowski KM, Pell KL, and Stephens J. Awareness Through Movement: An Intervention Strategy for Improving Coordination and Economy of Movement in a Group of Well Elderly People. Masters Thesis at Widener University, Institute for Physical Therapy Education, May 1998.
  76. Ives JC. Comments on "the Feldenkrais Method: a dynamic approach to changing motor behavior." [comment]. [Review] [60 refs]. [Comment. Journal Article. Review. Review: Tutorial] Research Quarterly for Exercise & Sport. 74(2):116-23; discussion 124-6, 2003 Jun. Peer Reviewed.

    The Feldenkrais Method has recently been discussed to fit within a dynamic systems model of human movement . One basis for this discussion is that small changes in one system--for example, enhanced body awareness --has far reaching implications across the whole of human performance. An alternative view on the Feldenkrais Method is argued here. It is argued that the clinical data do not support the Feldenkrais Method as being an effective way to improve motor performance. Further, it is argued that positive outcomes in pain and other wellness measures following Feldenkrais interventions can be ascribed to self-regulation. As part of this discussion, the role of body awareness, attentional focus, and kinesthesia in motor leaning and control are explored.

  77. Ives JC, Shelley GA. The Feldenkrais Method in Rehabilitation: a review. WORK: A Journal of Prevention, Asessment and Rehabilitation. 11: 75-90. 1998. This article contains a listing of many unpublished pieces of research which are not listed in other places. Peer Reviewed.

    Musculoskeletal disorders are often suggested to be caused, in part, by poor postural behaviors that are associated with occupational demands. The inefficacy of conventional strategies to elicit postural correction has prompted many to seek alternative techniques such as the Feldenkrais Method[R]. The rapidly growing use of the Feldenkrais Method[R] by laypersons and professionals has been fueled by extravagant claims and data published in non-peer-reviewed sources, for the effectiveness of this technique has been poorly documented in peer-reviewed publications. Therefore the purpose of this review was to critically assess the literature on the Feldenkrais Method[R] in both juried and non-juried sources. The results have generally indicated some improvement with Feldenkrais [R] interventions, however, these improvements are not nearly as large as suggested by the anecdotal claims. Unfortunately, most of the juried and non-juried findings and conclusions are questionable due to inadequately controlled studies and other serious methodological problems. As such, determination of the effectiveness of the Feldenkrais Method[R] based on the literature is difficult at best, and the only justifiable conclusion is that more study is warranted.

  78. Jackel, B. Aspekte psychomotorischer Arbeit nach Feldenkrais in der Grundschule. (Aspects of psychomotor work in accordance with Feldenkrais in elementary school.) [German]. [Article] Praxis der Psychomotorik (Dortmund) 27(3), Aug 2002, 161-166. Total No. of Pages: 6.

    Outlines the basic theories of Moshe Feldenkrais , including the concept of "effortless self-organization" and the concept of movement as a medium for self-development, in so far as it influences the sensory, emotional, social, cognitive and linguistic aspects of the person. Describes the process of becoming conscious of self through movement , the path from harmonious movement to perception and feeling, and the importance of breathing as a support to movement . Outlines the application of two aspects of the Feldenkrais method, ATM ( Awareness through Movement ) and FI (Functional Integration). Demonstrates how the Feldenkrais method can be applied in an elementary school setting.

  79. Jackson, O. The Feldenkrais Method: A personalized learning model. Contemporary Management of Motor Control Problems. Proceedings of the II Step Conference (ed. Marilyn Lister- APTA), Foundation for Physical Therapy, p131-135. 1991.
  80. Jackson-Wyatt O, Gula D, Kireta A, Steeves M. Effects of Feldenkrais Practitioner Training Program on Motor Ability: a videoanalysis. Physical Therapy 72: (suppl.) S86, 1992.
  81. Jackson-Wyatt, Osa. Documenting Alternative (Innovative) Therapies. Topics in Geriatric Rehabilitation. 13(2):66-74, December 1997.

    Abstract. Documentation of innovative/alternative therapies requires special consideration of the philosophy and foundation principles for the particular intervention. A detailed exploration is made of examples of modifications in documentation of evaluation and treatment. Specific discussion of how Newtonian and Einsteinian medicine are different is included. Documentation issues are related to the major differences in philosophies and how this changes the entire emphasis of patient-therapist communication.

  82. Jain S. Janssen K. DeCelle S. Alexander technique and Feldenkrais method: a critical overview. [Review] [18 refs]. [Journal Article. Review: Tutorial] Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation Clinics of North America. 15(4):811-25, vi, 2004 Nov. Peer Reviewed.

    This article develops an overall better understanding of the Alexander technique and Feldenkrais method. Initially, a brief history is provided to lay the groundwork for the development of these techniques. A description of the techniques, training requirements, and mechanism of action follows. Indications, contraindications, and patient selection are discussed. This article reviews and identifies what research has been completed and what areas need further investigation. Overall, the goal is to establish a guide to aid in determining who may benefit from these techniques and outcomes to expect when using these techniques.

  83. James ML, Kolt GS, HopperC, McConville JC, Bate P. The effects of a Feldenkrais program and relaxation procedures on hamstring length. Australian J Physiother 44: 49-54, 1998. Peer Reviewed.

    Despite the growing popularity of the Feldenkrais method in Australia (Wildman 1990b), little research is available investigating its efficacy. The current study investigated the effects of the Feldenkrais method on hamstring length. Forty-eight healthy undergraduate participants were randomly allocated into either Feldenkrais , relaxation, or control groups. All subjects had their right hamstring measured using a modified active knee extension test prior to the first session, prior to the fourth (final) session, and after the final session of intervention. Two-way analysis of variance with time of measurement repeated revealed no significant differences between the groups. The findings are discussed in relation to apparent ineffectiveness of the Feldenkrais awareness through movement lessons used on hamstring length, exposure time to the technique, and attitudes towards the Feldenkrais method.

  84. Johnson SK, Frederick J, Kaufman M, Mountjoy B. A controlled investigation of bodywork in multiple sclerosis. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine 5(3): 237-43, 1999. Results show lower perceived stress after Feldenkrais sessions compared to a sham intervention control group. Peer Reviewed.
  85. Junker J. Oberwittler C. Jackson D. Berger K. Utilization and perceived effectiveness of complementary and alternative medicine in patients with dystonia. [Journal Article] Movement Disorders. 19(2):158-61, 2004 Feb. Peer Reviewed.

    The use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is increasing worldwide, especially by patients with chronic diseases. To date, no data are available about utilization and perceived effectiveness of CAM in patients with dystonia. A questionnaire survey on utilization and costs of CAM was completed by 180 members of the German Dystonia Society, a patient advocate group. In total, 131 dystonia patients (73%) were current or former users of CAM, 55 patients used CAM in addition to botulinum toxin A injections, and 86 patients had experience with three or more CAM methods. The options used most widely were acupuncture (56%), relaxation techniques (44%), homeopathy (27%), and massages (26%). Among users of specific CAM methods, breathing therapy, Feldenkrais , massages, and relaxation techniques were perceived as most effective. On average, patients spent 1,513 Euro on CAM without reimbursement. There was no correlation between costs and perceived effectiveness of different methods. In line with other studies on chronically ill patients, our results show that dystonia patients frequently utilize CAM methods, often in addition to conventional treatment. There is a growing need to evaluate scientifically the effect of CAM methods on symptom severity and quality of life in dystonia, to prevent utilization of costly and ineffective CAM treatments.

  86. Kendall SA. Ekselius L. Gerdle B. Soren B. Bengtsson A. Feldenkrais intervention in fibromyalgia patients: a pilot study. J Musculoskeletal Pain. 9(4):25-35, 2001. Peer Reviewed.

    Objectives: To evaluate the effect of the Feldenkrais intervention, in fibromyalgia patients., Methods: Twenty fibromyalgia patients started Feldenkrais intervention done as one individual and two group sessions weekly for 15 weeks. Nineteen started a group-based pain education program followed by a pool program. Test and self-report questionnaires were administered at the start, at six month follow up, and at the end of intervention., Results: After the Feldenkrais intervention improvement in balance and trends to better lower extremity muscle function were shown, but the improvements were not maintained., Conclusions: No sustained benefit of the Feldenkrais intervention compared to a pool program was seen. Methodological problems are discussed.

  87. Kerr GA. Kotynia F. Kolt GS. FELDENKRAIS awareness through movement and state anxiety. [Journal Article: Research, Tables/Charts] Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies. 2002 Apr; 6(2): 102-7. (30 ref). Peer Reviewed.

    The ability of the FELDENKRAIS Method to reduce state anxiety was investigated. Specifically, both a single FELDENKRAIS Awareness Through Movement lesson and a 10-week FELDENKRAIS Awareness Through Movement programme were studied. Participants volunteered to take part in one 1-hour class each week for 10 weeks. Individuals who declined to participate in the 10-week programme were given the opportunity to participate in a single 1-hour lesson during week 5. Participants were divided into two groups: new and returning students, based on previous experience with Awareness Through Movement lessons. Participants were administered the state scale of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (Spielberger et al. 1983) prior to the beginning of the first lesson (week 1--T1), immediately before and after the fifth lesson (week 5--T2 and T3), and after the final lesson (week 10--T4). Findings indicated that state anxiety scores decreased significantly over a single lesson (T2 T3) for both new (n=13) and returning (n=42) students. In addition, state anxiety scores were significantly lower after the 10-week programme (T4) when compared with baseline scores (T1) for new (n=3) and returning (n=42) students, with new students experiencing a significantly greater reduction than returning students. These findings can be interpreted as further support for the efficacy of the FELDENKRAIS Method in reducing state anxiety.

  88. Knox, Kjersti E.; Fønnebø, Vinjar; Falkenberg, Torkel. Emerging Complementary and Alternative Medicine Policy Initiatives and the Need for Dialogue. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine, Sep2009, Vol. 15(9): 959-962.

    Subjects: SWEDEN; WORLD Health Organization; ALTERNATIVE medicine; PATIENTS -- Safety measures; HEALTH care reform; PUBLIC health laws, International

  89. Kolt GS. McConville JC. The effects of a FELDENKRAIS Awareness Through Movement program on state anxiety. [Journal Article: Research, Tables/Charts] Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies. 2000 Jul; 4(3): 216-20. (34 ref). Peer Reviewed.

    The effects of a FELDENKRAIS Awareness Through Movement program and relaxation procedures were assessed on a volunteer sample of 54 undergraduate physiotherapy students over a 2-week period. Participants were randomly allocated into a FELDENKRAIS METHOD group, a relaxation group, or a no-treatment (control) group, and state anxiety was measured using the Composed-Anxious scale of the Profile of Mood States-Bipolar Form (Lorr & McNair 1982) on four occasions: prior to the first intervention, prior to the fourth intervention, on completion of the fourth intervention, and one day after the fourth intervention. Analysis of variance showed that anxiety scores for all groups varied significantly over time and, specifically, that participants reported lower scores at the completion of the fourth intervention. Further, compared to the control group, females in the FELDENKRAIS and relaxation groups reported significantly lower anxiety scores on completion of the fourth session (compared to immediately prior to the fourth session), and this reduction was maintained one day later. These findings can be interpreted as preliminary evidence of the efficacy of the FELDENKRAIS METHOD and relaxation procedures in reducing anxiety.

  90. La Forge R. Aligning mind and body: exploring the disciplines of mindful exercise. ACSM's Health & Fitness Journal (ACSMS HEALTH FITNESS J), 2005 Sep-Oct; 9(5): 7-14, 37-9 (14 ref 8 bib). Peer Reviewed.

    journal article - CEU, exam questions, pictorial, review, tables/charts. Minor Subjects: Education, Continuing (Credit); Alternative Therapies; Yoga; Yoga -- Methods; Exercise Intensity; Respiration; Medicine, Chinese Traditional; Tai Chi; Information Resources; Pilates; Neuromuscular Facilitation; Alexander Technique; Feldenkrais Method Abstract: Mindful exercise can complement and serve as an alterantive to conventional exercise programming, provided the participant understands the purpose and nature of the mindful exercise modality. This article provides an introduction for fitness professionals to the scope and purpose of mind-body (mindful) exercise.

  91. Lake, Bernard. Acute Back Pain: Treatment by the Application of Feldenkrais Principles. Australian Family Physician, vol. 14, no.11, 1985.
  92. Lake, Bernard. Photoanalysis of Standing Posture in Controls and Low Back Pain: Effects of Kinesthetic Processing (Feldenkrais Method) in Posture and Gait: Control Mechanisms VII. eds. M Woollocott and F Horak, U of Oregon Press, 1992, pp 400- 403.
  93. Laumer U, Bauer M, Fichter M, Milz H. Therapeutic Effects of Feldenkrais Method Awareness Through Movement in Patients with Eating Disorders. Psychother Psychosom Med Psychol 47(5): 170-180, 1997 Originally published in German. Available in English on IFF website. Peer Reviewed.

    Based on the movement-pedagogical concept of Feldenkrais and the findings-of disturbed body perception by eating disordered patients this research aimed at studying the therapeutical effects of the Feldenkrais Method "Awareness through Movement" with eating disorder patients, 15 eating disordered patients treated at the Roseneck hospital for behavioural medicine rated-by means of a questionnaire consisting of scales of the Body Cathexis Scale (BCS), the Body Parts Satisfaction Scale (BPSS), the questionnaire for body perception (Fragebogen zum Korpererleben; FKE), the Emotion inventory (Emotionalitatsinventar; EMI-B), the Anorexia-Nervosa-Inventory for Self-rating (ANIS) and the Eating Disorder Inventory-2 (EDI)-various aspects of their eating disorder before and after participating in a nine hour course of the Feldenkrais Method. The data of these patients were compared to those of the members of a control group, also consisting of 15 eating disordered patients who did not participate in a Feldenkrais course. The participants of the Feldenkrais-course showed increasing contentment with regard to problematic zones of their body and their own health as well as concerning acceptance and familiarity with their own body. Other results were a more spontaneous, open and self-confident behaviour, the decrease of feelings of helplessness and decrease of the wish to return to the security of the early childhood, which indicates the development of felt sense of self, self-confidence and a general process of maturation of the whole personality. The outcome points to the therapeutical effectiveness of the Feldenkrais Method with eating-disorder patients within a multimodal treatment program.

  94. Liptak GS. Complementary and alternative therapies for cerebral palsy. Mental Retardation & Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews. 11(2):156-63, 2005. Peer Reviewed.

    Abstract. The optimal practice of medicine includes integrating individual clinical expertise with the best available clinical evidence from systematic research. This article reviews nine treatment modalities used for children who have cerebral palsy (CP), including hyperbaric oxygen, the Adeli Suit, patterning, electrical stimulation, conductive education, equine-assisted therapy, craniosacral therapy, Feldenkrais therapy, and acupuncture. Unfortunately, these modalities have different degrees of published evidence to support or refute their effectiveness. Uncontrolled and controlled trials of hippotherapy have shown beneficial effects on body structures and functioning. Studies of acupuncture are promising, but more studies are required before specific recommendations can be made. Most studies of patterning have been negative and its use cannot be recommended. However, for the other interventions, such as hyperbaric oxygen, more evidence is required before recommendations can be made. The individual with CP and his or her family have a right to full disclosure of all possible treatment options and whatever knowledge currently is available regarding these therapies. Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [References: 82]. Journal Article. Review.

  95. Lowe, Bernd; Breining, Katja; Wilke, Stefanie; Wellmann, Renate; Zipfel, Stephan; Eich, Wolfgang. Quantitative and qualitative effects of Feldenkrais, progressive muscle relaxation, and standard medical treatment in patients after acute myocardial infarction. [Peer Reviewed Journal] Psychotherapy Research. Vol 12(2) Sum 2002, 179-191. Peer Reviewed.

    Examined the effectiveness of the Feldenkrais method of functional integration and of progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) compared with the standard medical treatment during the acute phase after myocardial infarction. Three patient groups (20 in each) received 1 of 3 treatment options: 2 sessions of Feldenkrais therapy, 2 sessions of PMR, or no intervention. Evaluations using quantitative and qualitative methods were performed an average of 3.7 and 7.8 days after Ss' myocardial infarction, respectively. Significant improvements, independent of the intervention, were found over the evaluation period in the Perception of Body Dynamics body image scale and in the Physical Well-Being and Emotional Well-Being quality-of-life scales. A statistically significant, differential effect of any one intervention with respect to the control group did not arise in any of the quantitative questionnaire variables examined. However, subjective improvements of varying description were noted by 17 of 20 patients after the 1st Feldenkrais therapy and by 13 of 20 patients after the 1st PMR treatment. The qualitative patient statements support using the Feldenkrais method or PMR for particular cases in an acute medical setting and continuing treatment during rehabilitation or on an outpatient basis.

  96. Lundblad I. Elert J. Gerdle B. Randomized controlled trial of physiotherapy and Feldenkrais interventions in female workers with neck-shoulder complaints. [Journal Article: Clinical Trial] Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation. 1999 Sep; 9(3): 179-94. (46 ref). Peer Reviewed.

    The present study aimed to investigate whether physiotherapy or Feldenkrais interventions resulted in a reduction of complaints from the neck and shoulders (prevalence, pain intensity, sick leave, and disability in leisure and work roles) in 97 female industrial workers (not on long-term sick leave). Range of motion of neck and shoulders, VO2, endurance score (i.e., summation of pain intensity ratings during a static shoulder flexion), cortical control according to the Feldenkrais methodology, and physiological capacity according to a dynamic endurance test of the shoulder flexors with simultaneous surface EMG were also recorded. The workers were randomized to: (1) physiotherapy group (PT-group; treatment according to the ergonomic program of the PTs of the occupational health care service), (2) Feldenkrais group (F-group; education according to the Feldenkrais methodology), or (3) control group (C-group; no intervention). Pre- and post-tests were made at one-year intervals. The two interventions lasted 16 weeks during paid working time. The F-group showed significant decreases in complaints from neck and shoulders and in disability during leisure time. The two other groups showed no change (PT-group) or worsening of complaints (C-group). The present study showed significant positive changes in complaints after the Feldenkrais intervention but not after the physiotherapy intervention. Possible mechanisms behind the effects in the F-group are discussed.

  97. Lusky BW. Devlin K. Alternative therapies in the treatment of upper extremity dysfunction. [Journal Article: Case Study] Orthopaedic Physical Therapy Clinics of North America. 2001 Dec; 10(4): 667-79. (17 ref). Peer Reviewed.

    This article describes the use of alternative therapies to treat patients with orthopaedic upper extremity injuries. Numerous alternative therapies might be considered for treatment; this article discusses the approaches most widely used and scientifically documented, including acupuncture, craniosacral therapy, and Feldenkrais , all of which have in common a general philosophy of enhancing the natural healing system to improve function and decrease pain.

  98. Lyttle TSK. The Feldenkrais Method: application, practice and principles. J Bodywork Movement Ther. 1(5):262-9, 1997. Peer Reviewed.
  99. Maher CG. Effective physical treatment for chronic low back pain. [Review] [52 refs]. [Journal Article. Review. Review: Tutorial] Orthopedic Clinics of North America. 35(1):57-64, 2004 Jan. Peer Reviewed.

    It is now feasible to adopt an evidence-based approach when providing physical treatment for patients with chronic LBP. A summary of the efficacy of a range of physical treatments is provided in Table 1. The evidence-based primary care options are exercise, laser, massage, and spinal manipulation; however, the latter three have small or transient effects that limit their value as therapies for chronic LBP. In contrast, exercise produces large reductions in pain and disability, a feature that suggests that exercise should play a major role in the management of chronic LBP. Physical treatments, such as acupuncture, backschool, hydrotherapy, lumbar supports, magnets, TENS, traction, ultrasound, Pilates therapy, Feldenkrais therapy, Alexander technique, and craniosacral therapy are either of unknown value or ineffective and so should not be considered. Outside of primary care, multidisciplinary treatment or functional restoration is effective; however, the high cost probably means that these programs should be reserved for patients who do not respond to cheaper treatment options for chronic LBP. Although there are now effective treatment options for chronic LBP, it needs to be acknowledged that the problem of chronic LBP is far from solved. Though treatments can provide marked improvements in the patient's condition, the available evidence suggests that the typical chronic LBP patient is left with some residual pain and disability. Developing new, more powerful treatments and refining the current group of known effective treatments is the challenge for the future.

  100. Malmgren-Olsson E. Armelius B. Armelius K. A comparative outcome study of body awareness therapy, Feldenkrais , and conventional physiotherapy for patients with nonspecific musculoskeletal disorders: changes in psychological symptoms, pain, and self-image. [Journal Article: Research, Tables/Charts] Physiotherapy Theory and Practice. 2001 Jun; 17(2): 77-95. (55 ref). Peer Reviewed.

    Patients with nonspecific musculoskeletal disorders are often remitted for physiotherapy treatment in primary care. The rehabilitation effects for this patient group are generally poor and many of the treatment methods used have not been scientifically evaluated. The purpose of this study is to compare treatment effects of Body Awareness Therapy, Feldenkrais , and conventional individual treatment with respect to changes in psychological distress, pain, and self-image in patients with nonspecific musculoskeletal disorders. A total of 78 patients, 64 females and 14 males, with nonspecific musculoskeletal disorders were recruited consecutively to the different treatment groups in a quasiexperimental design. The patients were measured three times during the study period: before the interventions, after six months, and after one year. The results showed significant positive changes over time in all three treatment groups with regard to reduced psychological distress, pain, and improved negative self-image. There were few significant differences among the groups but effect-size analysis indicated that the group treatments using Body Awareness Therapy and Feldenkrais might be more effective than conventional treatment.

  101. Malmgren-Olsson EB. Branholm IB. A comparison between three physiotherapy approaches with regard to health-related factors in patients with non-specific musculoskeletal disorders. [Journal Article] Disability & Rehabilitation. 24(6):308-17, 2002 Apr 15. Peer Reviewed.

    PURPOSE: The main aim of this study was to compare the effects of Body Awareness Therapy (BAT), the Feldenkrais (FK) method and conventional physiotherapy on changes of health-related quality of life (HRQL), self-efficacy and sense of coherence (SOC) in patients with non-specific musculoskeletal disorders. A second aim was to explore the relationships between SOC, HRQL and self-efficacy and to examine whether SOC could be a predictor of the treatment outcome. METHOD: A total of 78 patients, 64 women and 14 men, were recruited consecutively to the three treatment groups. The instrument used were the Swedish version of SF-36, the 20 items Arthritis Self-efficacy Scale and the 29-item questionnaire by Antonovsky. RESULTS: The results showed that there were significant improvements on all subscales of SF-36 except for one. By using effect-size values it was found that the BAT and FK groups reached larger effect-size than did the conventional therapy group. These two groups also improved in self-efficacy of pain and stayed stable while the third group deteriorated at the one-year follow-up. There were significant correlations between the mental dimensions of SF-36 and SOC indicating that the instruments may measure aspects of the same global construct. CONCLUSIONS: Although few significant differences between the three treatment groups the BAT and FK seemed to improve health-related quality of life and self-efficacy of pain to a somewhat higher degree than the conventional physiotherapy. SOC seemed to be a stable trait measure over time.

  102. Mann, Douglas, Gaylord, Susan, Norton, Sally. Moving Toward Integrative Care: Rationales, Models, and Steps for Conventional-Care Providers. Complementary Health Practice Review. 9(3):155-172, October 1, 2004. Peer Reviewed.

    Abstract. Integration of conventional and complementary care in the United States is driven by the growing use of complementary therapies by patients, limitations in the effectiveness of conventional care for a variety of chronic conditions, a growing emphasis on patient satisfaction as a legitimate outcome of care, and an awareness on the part of insurers and practitioners that complementary approaches can offer a broad array of options that may significantly enhance healing and promote more active patient participation in health maintenance. Many models of integrative care are possible, ranging from the informed practitioner, to fully integrated group practices, to hospital-based and academic center systems of integration. A variety of barriers and challenges can slow the process of integration, including limited personal financial and temporal resources, negative peer opinion, legislative hindrances, and reimbursement shortfalls. This review describes seven models of integrative health care and offers recommendations to conventional-care providers for moving toward the practice of integrative medicine.

  103. McCaw, Dick. Psychophysical Training for the Actor: A question of plumbing or wiring?. Performance Research. Jun 2009, Vol. 14(2): p60-65.

    Subjects: ESSAY; PHYSICAL training & conditioning; BRAIN -- Physiology; PSYCHOLOGY; PERFORMING arts; PERFORMANCE; FELDENKRAIS, Moshe; STANISLAVSKY, Constantine

  104. McCrum C. The FELDENKRAIS METHOD of somatic education -- moving beyond habits. SportEX Dynamics (SPORTEX DYN), 2007 Oct(14): 12-3 (5 bib) journal article - case study, pictorial, website. Alternative Therapies; Female; Information Resources; Low Back Pain -- Therapy; Tennis. Peer Reviewed.

    Abstract: In sport, the arts and indeed in any field of human endeavour involving movement, we aim for a smoothness of action that we consider to be good form. We want our movements to be efficient, graceful, effortless and powerful. Top athletes and performers understand that these elements are an integral part of producing a consistently high level of performance and that they also help in the prevention of injury. However those of us who are less 'naturally' gifted consider the amazing coordination and ability of top performers and athletes to be innate - a gift that they are born with - and we believe that they raise their performance levels only through hours of dedicated practice and effort in the gym. While it is true that most of us will never match the grace and ease displayed by sportsmen such as Roger Federer or Tiger Woods, we have an innate potential for graceful action far beyond that we can imagine - if only we could learn how to realise it!

  105. McEwen, Sara E.; Huijbregts, Maria P. J.; Ryan, Jennifer D.; Polatajko, Helene J. Cognitive strategy use to enhance motor skill acquisition post-stroke: A critical review. Brain Injury, Apr 2009, Vol. 23(4): 263-277.

    Subjects: MOTOR ability; CEREBROVASCULAR disease -- Patients -- Rehabilitation; COGNITIVE therapy; COGNITIVE psychology; LITERATURE reviews; BRAIN – Diseases

  106. Mehling WE; DiBlasi Z; Hecht F. Bias control in trials of bodywork: a review of methodological issues. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine (J ALTERN COMPLEMENT MED), 2005 Apr; 11(2): 333-42 (76 ref). Peer Reviewed.

    journal article - research, systematic review, tables/charts. Minor Subjects: Computerized Literature Searching; Embase; PubMed Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To review and summarize the methodological challenges in clinical trials of bodywork or hands on mind-body therapies such as Feldenkrais Method, Alexander Technique, Trager Work, Eutony, Body Awareness Therapy, Breath Therapy, and Rolfing, and to discuss ways these challenges can be addressed. DESIGN: Review and commentary. METHODS: Search of databases PubMed and EMBASE and screening of bibliographies. Published clinical studies were included if they used individual hands-on approaches and a focus on body awareness, and were not based on technical devices. RESULTS: Of the 53 studies identified, 20 fulfilled inclusion criteria. No studies blinded subject to the treatment being given, but 5 used an alternative treatment and blinded participants to differential investigator expectations of efficacy. No study used a credible placebo intervention. No studies reported measures of patient expectations. Patient expectations have been measured in studies of other modalities but not of hands-on mind-body therapies. Options are presented for minimizing investigator and therapist bias and bias from differential patient expectations, and for maintaining some control for nonspecific treatment effects. Practical issues with recruitment and attrition resulting from volunteer bias are addressed. CONCLUSIONS: Rigorous clinical trials of hands-on complementary and alternative therapy interventions are scarce, needed, and feasible. Difficulties with blinding, placebo, and recruitment can be systematically addressed by various methods that minimize the respective biases. The methods suggested here may enhance the rigor of further explanatory trials.

  107. Miller TM. Decision Making Processes of Physical Therapists and Feldenkrais® Practitioners. PhD dissertation, Temple University, 2007; Advisors: Shepard KF, Stephens J, Hack L.

    Abstract. This dissertation explored the actual decision making processes of physical therapists and Guild Certified Feldenkrais Practitioners(cm) using grounded theory, multiple case study design and qualitative methods. Decision-making processes were identified and compared and contrasted within and across professions. A preliminary study was conducted with a client with cerebral palsy and a client with neck pain to test the initial conceptual framework and identify operational definitions. For the main study, the researcher employed purposive homogeneous sampling through a nomination process to identify three master therapists and three master practitioners. Therapists and practitioners (informants) were videotaped working with three clients each, who were being seen for musculoskeletal problems. The researcher employed semi-structured interview and probe questions during review of the videotapes to identify decision-making processes. Audio taped interview data were transcribed, analyzed with an expert qualitative researcher, and coded by the researcher and an expert coder. Percent agreements and Cohen’s Kappas were calculated to assess for interrater and intrarater consistency of the emergent themes. Case studies were written by triangulating data for each informant from questionnaires, interview responses and filed notes and memos.

  108. Myers T. Acture! Posture in action. [Journal Article, Pictorial, Tables/Charts] Massage & Bodywork. 2006 Oct-Nov; 21(5): 42-5, 48, 50 passim . Peer Reviewed.

    This Anatomy Trains creator emphasizes the variables of posture and underscores that it's not static, it's really a pattern of movement.

  109. Nair DG, Fuchs A, Burkart S, Steinberg FL, Kelso JA. Assessing recovery in middle cerebral artery stroke using functional MRI. Brain Inj. 2005 Dec;19(13):1165-76. Peer Reviewed.

    PRIMARY OBJECTIVE: To understand the temporal evolution of brain reorganization during recovery from stroke. RESEARCH DESIGN: A patient who suffered left middle cerebral artery stroke 9 months earlier was studied on three occasions, approximately 1 month apart. This patient received interventions based on Feldenkrais Method twice a week for 8 weeks. METHODS AND PROCEDURES: Brain activation was studied using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI). During each session, the patient performed a finger-to-thumb opposition task, which involved one bimanual and two unimanual conditions. Each condition consisted of overt movement of fingers and imagery of the same task. RESULTS: With recovery, greater recruitment was observed of the affected primary motor cortex (M1) and a decrease in activation of the unaffected M1 and supplementary motor area. In addition, the widespread activation of brain areas seen during the initial session changed to a more focused pattern of activation as the patient recovered. Imagery tasks resulted in similar brain activity as overt execution pointing to imagery as a potential tool for rehabilitation.

  110. Narula M, Jackson O, Kulig K. The Effects of Six Week Feldenkrais Method on Selected Functional Parameters in a Subject with Rheumatoid Arthritis. Physical Therapy 72: (suppl.) S86,1992.
  111. Narula, Meena. Effect of the Six Week Awareness Through Movement Lessons (The Feldenkrais Method) on Selected Functional Movement Parameters in Individuals with Rheumatoid Arthritis (Pilot study using a single subject case study design). MS, Oakland University, Rochester, MI. 1993.
  112. Nelson S; Blades E. Singing with your whole self: the Feldenkrais Method and voice. Journal of Singing (J SING), 2005 Nov-Dec; 62(2): 145-57.

    journal article - case study, pictorial, protocol. Subjects: Balance, Postural; Body Mechanics; Pelvis

  113. Netz Y. Lidor R. Mood alterations in mindful versus aerobic exercise modes. [Journal Article] Journal of Psychology. 137(5):405-19, 2003 Sep. Peer Reviewed.

    The results of most recent studies have generally indicated an improvement in mood after participation in aerobic exercise. However, only a few researchers have compared mindful modes of exercise with aerobic exercise to examine the effect of 1 single session of exercise on mood. In the present study, the authors assessed state anxiety, depressive mood, and subjective well-being prior to and following 1 class of 1 of 4 exercise modes: yoga, Feldenkrais (awareness through movement ), aerobic dance, and swimming; a computer class served as a control. Participants were 147 female general curriculum and physical education teachers (mean age = 40.15, SD = 0.2) voluntarily enrolled in a 1-year enrichment program at a physical education college. Analyses of variance for repeated measures revealed mood improvement following Feldenkrais , swimming, and yoga but not following aerobic dance and computer lessons. Mindful low-exertion activities as well as aerobic activities enhanced mood in 1 single session of exercise. The authors suggest that more studies assessing the mood-enhancing benefits of mindful activities such as Feldenkrais and yoga are needed.

  114. Niethammer U. Silent dialogue with the body -- the Feldenkrais view of touching [German]. [Journal Article: Pictorial] Krankengymnastik: Zeitschrift fur Physiotherapeuten. 2003; 55(12): 2134-6, 2138-40. (5 ref).

    Man is a holistic system: thinking, feeling, and acting are interactive elements of life. It follows that when I touch a person, I touch not only his body, but I also move and touch his mind and his soul. Using this as a given, and assuming the human concept of the Feldenkrais method, namely that man is a self-regulating system, with a lifelong capacity to learn, we describe the essential aspects of touching. What posture should I assume? Where do I begin to make initial contact? What are the elements of having a "silent dialogue"? In concluding, we make clear that this form of touching can only succeed in making the patient feel accepted if extreme care and sensitivity is applied.

  115. Nordin, Sanna M., Cumming, Jennifer. The Development of Imagery in Dance. Journal of Dance Medicine & Science 2006, Vol. 10 Issue 1/2, p21 7p. Peer Reviewed.

    Abstract: A series of two studies was undertaken to investigate the development of imagery among dancers and how dance teachers might affect the imagery development process. The first study is reported here, the second in Part II. For the present study in-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with 14 female (n = 9) and male (n=5) professional dancers from a range of ages and dance forms. The recorded interviews were transcribed verbatim and content-analyzed with NVivo 4.0. Results fell into three categories: Early Experiences, Teachers, and Imagery Changes. Findings included few dancers having been taught about imagery, and that dancers often preferred teachers who gave plenty of images so that each dancer could use images that suited his or her own needs. As dancers became more accomplished, imagery typically changed toward more frequent, complex, and kinesthetic images. Suggestions for further research and ideas for practical application are provided. ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR

  116. O'Connor M. Webb R. Learning to rest when in pain. [Journal Article: Pictorial, Research] European Journal of Palliative Care. 2002 Mar-Apr; 9(2): 68-71. (18 ref).

    Margaret O'Connor and Robert Webb report on the usage of a lesser-known approach -- the Feldenkrais Method -- in teaching people to cope with pain on movement.

  117. Ofir R. A heuristic investigation of the process of motor learning using Feldenkrais method in physical rehabilitation of two young women with traumatic brain injury. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Union Institute, NY, 1993. Brief abstract only. Documents improvements with Feldenkrais intervention. Videotape supports text. Qualitative.
  118. Panarello-Black D. PT's Own Back Pain Leads Her to Start Feldenkrais Training. PT Bulletin. April 8, 1992, pp 9.
  119. Pendergast C, Roller BA, Weiskittel RS and Stephens J. Awareness through Movement as a Strategy for Improving Coordination and Economy of Movement in Older Adults. Masters Thesis at Widener University, Institute for Physical Therapy Education, May 1997.
  120. Phillips-Silver, Jessica. On the Meaning of Movement in Music, Development and the Brain. Contemporary Music Review, 2009, Vol. 28(3): 293-314.

    Subjects: MUSIC -- Physiological effect; MUSIC therapy; DANCE; NEUROSCIENCES; MUSIC & dance; BRAIN

  121. Phipps A, Lopez R, Powell R (advisor), Lundy-Ekman L (advisor), Maebori D (CFP). A Functional Outcome Study on the Use of Movement Re-Education in Chronic Pain Management. Master’s Thesis at Pacific University, School of Physical Therapy, Forest Grove, Oregon, May 1997.
  122. Polsgrove, M.J. Changes in height and postural stability using the Feldenkrais Method. [Microform Thesis or Dissertation] Microform Publications, University of Oregon Eugene, OR, 2002.

    18 women (l8-45 years) served as subjects for either the experimental group or control group. Individuals participated in a series of exercises designed for either the experimental or control group. The experimental group participated in a series of Feldenkrais Method(TM) exercises, while the control group participated in a series of related stretching exercise. Exposure to each condition took place over a four-week period, meeting two times a week for 35 to 45 minutes, for a total of eight sessions. Values of height and postural stability were gained from the sensor information of designated marker sites. A multiple regression analysis was used to assess the effects of group training, pre- and post-participation. Results from this analysis showed that no significant difference in height and postural stability existed between the Feldenkrais Method(TM) group and the stretching group. These results did, however, reveal superiority in the amplitude during medial-lateral sway in subjects who received Feldenkrais Method(TM) over those who underwent stretching exercises. Additionally, the frequency during medial-lateral sway, and for the interaction values for frequency during medial-lateral and anterior-posterior sway, revealed significant differences for the within group analysis.

  123. Rardin MA. The effects of an injury prevention intervention on playing-related pain, tension, and attitudes in the high school string orchestra classroom. D.M.A. (212 p) (doctoral dissertation - research) ISBN: 978-054-939-0244244 CINAHL AN: 2010060865, University of Southern California, 2007.

    Abstract: Pain is the most common complaint among musicians seeking treatment for playing-related musculoskeletal disorders. Results of multiple studies have suggested that playing-related injury rates increase as musicians progress from adolescence through collegiate years to professional careers. Researchers have recommended that prevention efforts focus on young players who are developing their playing behaviors.; The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a multiple-modality injury prevention program on playing-related (1) pain, (2) tension, and (3) attitudes of "no pain, no gain." The subjects of this study were early high school string players (ages 14-15), from a large public school orchestra program. Pretest and posttest questionnaires were completed by both the experimental (n = 65) and control groups (n = 65) to determine changes brought about by the injury prevention program.; The intervention consisted of a 10-week, multiple-modality program of prevention education and physical "warm-ups" based upon Feldenkrais, Alexander, and physical therapy. These warm-ups were designed to inform musicians in the intervention group both cognitively and experientially about injury prevention.; Results indicated significant pretest-posttest interaction effects for pain frequency, pain severity, tension frequency and "no pain, no gain" attitudes. Additionally, tension severity approached a significant interaction (p = .098).; Analysis of the effects of the intervention program indicated that experimental students reported less pain at the end of the study, but more tension or discomfort---suggesting an increased sensitivity to tension/discomfort. Along with a reduction in attitudes of "no pain, no gain," these results indicated that a multiple-modality prevention program is effective in changing pain, tension, and attitudes in pre-college string players.

  124. Ruth S, Kegerreis S. Facilitating Cervical Flexion Using a Feldenkrais Method: Awareness Through Movement. J Sports Phys Ther.16(1): 25-29, 1992. Peer Reviewed.
  125. Ryding C. Rudebeck CE. Mattsson B. Body awareness in movement and language: concordance and disparity. [Journal Article: Research] Advances in Physiotherapy. 2004; 6(4): 158-65. (18 ref). Peer Reviewed.

    Background and purpose: Body Awareness Scale-Health (BAS-H) is a physiotherapy scoring instrument that assesses the quality and harmony in posture and simple movement s. In the present work, we have studied the concordance between body awareness scores and described body experience to further refine the concept of body awareness . Method: Sixteen general practitioners were assessed according to BAS-H and interviewed using a semi-structured method concerning their own body experience in relation to three themes. The interviews for the five participants who were found to have the most well-developed body awareness were compared, with the five that had the least developed body awareness . Results: The participants in the group with well-developed body awareness described a more positive attitude towards the body, and they gave clearer descriptions about their experiences of emotions and conditions such as hunger and tiredness. However, there were important exceptions. Body awareness has two dimensions-an outward/expressive dimension that is expressed in posture and movement and an inward/introspective dimension. Summary hypotheses: The study was summarized in several hypotheses concerning the relationship between expressive and introspective body awareness.

  126. Saraswati, S. Investigation of Human Postural Muscles and Respiratory Movements. M.Sc. University of New South Wales. 1989.
  127. Schön-Ohlsson, Christina U. M., Willén, Jan A. G., Johnels, Bo E. A.. OPTOELECTRONIC MOVEMENT ANALYSIS TO MEASURE MOTOR PERFORMANCE IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC LOW BACK PAIN: TEST OF RELIABILITY. Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine Nov2006, Vol. 38 Issue 6, p360 8p. Keyword(s): Chronic low back pain; optoelectronic measurement; PLM; quantitative movement analysis; test-retest reliability.. Peer Reviewed.

    Abstract: Objective: To assess test-retest reliability of the Posturo-Locomotion-Manual(PLM) test in patients with chronic low back pain.Design: A controlled study in which the PLM test was used repeatedly on patients with chronic low back pain and persons without back pain.Subjects: Twelve patients with treatment-resistant chronic low back pain, selected by 2 orthopaedic spine surgeons and 12 age- and sex-matched individuals with no back pain history.Methods: An optoelectronic camera and a computer were used to quantify the performance during a simple test in which subjects picked up an object from the floor and transported it up to a shelf, thereby forcing the body through postural, locomotor and manual movements. The outcome measures were: movement time, simultaneity index and phase times for postural, locomotion and arm movement phases. Statistical analyses regarding intra-individual agreement between the measurements (reliability analysis) and changes over time were carried out.Results: The effect of test movement habituation was minimized when the lowest mean value of any of 3 consecutive measures (tri-average) was used. In the control group, variation between test occasions was small. In the group of patients with chronic low back pain there was a random measurement error before intervention (sensory motor learning). After intervention the PLM test had the same precision in both groups.Conclusion: When the tri-average measure is used, the influence of test movement habituation is minimized and the optoelectronic PLM test is found to be reliable and responsive. It proved to be a useful tool to quantify dynamic performance in freely moving patients with chronic low back pain. ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR

  128. Schlinger M.. Feldenkrais Method, Alexander Technique, and yoga--body awareness therapy in the performing arts. [Review] [24 refs] [Journal Article. Review] Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation Clinics of North America. 17(4):865-75, 2006 Nov. Peer Reviewed.

    The three disciplines described are practiced by many individuals for a myriad of reasons. Depending upon ability and depth of study, teachers of all three disciplines may have specific competencies with which to analyse, instruct, and interact with students/clients. In the author's experience, persons who seek out these practices and incorporate them into their daily lives and expressions of physical activity often are motivated to maintain or establish an optimal state of well-being and function. Physicians and therapists who work with performing artists are in a position to encourage such positive direction in patients, provide information on local resources, and consider the practices as collaborative and adjunctive to medical care. [References: 24]

  129. Schlinger M. Feldenkrais Method, Alexander Technique, and yoga -- body awareness therapy in the performing arts. Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation Clinics of North America, 2006 Nov; 17 (4): 865-75 (journal article - review) ISSN: 1047-9651 PMID: 17097486 CINAHL AN: 2009371103. Peer Reviewed.

    Abstract: The three disciplines described are practiced by many individuals for a myriad of reasons. Depending upon ability and depth of study, teachers of all three disciplines may have specific competencies with which to analyse, instruct, and interact with students/clients. In the author's experience, persons who seek out these practices and incorporate them into their daily lives and expressions of physical activity often are motivated to maintain or establish an optimal state of well-being and function. Physicians and therapists who work with performing artists are in a position to encourage such positive direction in patients, provide information on local resources, and consider the practices as collaborative and adjunctive to medical care. Copyright © 2006 by Elsevier Inc

  130. Schon-Ohlsson, Christina, Willen, Jan, MD, PhD, Johnels, Bo, MD, PhD. Sensory Motor Learning in Patients With Chronic Low Back Pain: A Prospective Pilot Study Using Optoelectronic Movement Analysis. Spine. 30(17):E509-E516, September 1, 2005. Peer Reviewed.

    Abstract. Study Design. The effect of sensory motor learning (SML) on chronic low back pain (CLBP) patients' movement capacity was evaluated with the optoelectronic Posturo-Locomotion-Manual (PLM) test. Objective. To study SML changes of an intentional dynamic behavior of daily life in a group of CLBP patients and compare the performance with an age- and sex-matched group of back-healthy individuals. Summary of Background Data. In a previous study, the PLM test was found reliable when used in CLBP patients. SML addresses dynamic movement capacity. There is little scientific evidence of the effectiveness of educational interventions in improving motor behavior. Methods. Twelve patients with treatment-resistant CLBP were selected by two orthopedic spine surgeons. Twelve back-healthy age- and sex-matched individuals were included as controls. The patients participated in weekly SML lessons during a maximum of 12 months. All study participants were investigated with the PLM test, before intervention, directly after intervention, and 10 to 12 months after completion of the intervention, and patients were compared with controls. Results. Before intervention significant differences in performance were found between the group of patients and the healthy control group. After the intervention, the CLBP patients had improved their performance so there were no longer any significant differences between the groups. The results were retained 12 months after intervention. Conclusions. The study shows that the CLBP patients had learned and retained a more efficient behavior. The results suggest that SML is an effective intervention for nonspecific CLBP patients.

  131. Seegert EM. Shapiro R. From the field. Effects of alternative exercise on posture. [Journal Article: Research, Tables/Charts] Clinical Kinesiology: Journal of the American Kinesiotherapy Association. 1999 Summer; 53(2): 41-7. (20 ref). Peer Reviewed.

    This investigation examined the effects of neuromuscular reeducation exercises on the standing posture of 25 collegeage students. The Portland State University Posture Analysis Form (PSU PAF), a force platform, and a tape measure were used to measure postural alignment, postural sway, and height before and after treatment sessions. Subjects completed a subjective questionnaire. Controls rested in supine posture during the treatment session, while the exercise group performed selected Feldenkrais and psychophysical re-education exercises. Dependent t-tests were used to determine differences between the pre tests and post tests. Both groups showed decreases in all sway variables, for both eyes open (EO) and eyes closed (EC) conditions, improved alignment of body parts, and increased height. Only the exercise group showed statistically significant sway changes. Only exercise group subjects reported feeling more efficient after the treatment session. Both groups reported increased tightness and discomfort of various body parts after treatment. The data suggest that the supine positioning is responsible for some changes. The postural sway results and the rate of height increase suggest that the exercises may also have independent effects.

  132. Shapiro, Sue A. A Rush to Action: Embodiment, the Analyst's Subjectivity, and the Interpersonal Experience. Studies in Gender & Sexuality, Spring 2009, Vol. 10(2):93-103.

    Subjects: PSYCHOTHERAPY; COUPLES; INTERPERSONAL communication; SUBJECTIVITY; PSYCHOLOGY; INTERPERSONAL relations; DYADS; DYADIC communication; SOMESTHESIA

  133. Shelhav-Silberbush, Chava. The Feldenkrais Method for Children with Cerebral Palsy. pp116. MS Thesis. Boston University School of Education, Feldenkrais Resources, Berkeley CA,1988.
  134. Shelhav-Silberbush, Chava. Movement and Learning: The Feldenkrais Method as a Learning Model. PhD Dissertation, Faculty of Sociology and Behavioral Science. Heidelberg University, Germany. 1998. Not yet reprinted or translated into English. Published in German. Controlled study with a group of learning disabled children in Germany.
  135. Shenkman M, Butler R. A Model for Multisystem Evaluation, Interpretation, and Treatment of Individuals with Neurologic Dysfunction. Physical Therapy. 69(7) 538-547, 1989 Mentions Feldenkrais Method as a good treatment option. Peer Reviewed.
  136. Shenkman M, Donovan J, Tsubota J, Kluss M, Stebbins P, Butler R. Management of Individuals with Parkinsons Disease: Rationale and Case Studies. Physical Therapy 69: 944-955, 1989 Mentions Feldenkrais Method as treatment option. Peer Reviewed.
  137. Shusterman, Richard. Body Consciousness and Performance: Somaesthetics East and West. Journal of Aesthetics & Art Criticism, Spring2009, Vol. 67(2): 133-145.

    Subjects: MIND & body; AESTHETICS; HUMAN body; THEATER & philosophy; EAST & West; SELF-knowledge, Theory of

  138. Smith AL. Kolt GS. McConville JC. The effect of the Feldenkrais method on pain and anxiety in people experiencing chronic low back pain. [Journal Article: Research, Tables/Charts] New Zealand Journal of Physiotherapy. 2001 Mar; 29(1): 6-14. (54 ref). Peer Reviewed.

    The aim of this pilot investigation was to evaluate the Feldenkrais Method's effect on pain and state anxiety in people experiencing chronic low back pain. Participants (N = 26) were aged between 25 and 78 years, and were recruited from a community health centre, a rehabilitation hospital, and from the general community. The sample was divided into two groups: Feldenkrais and control. The Feldenkrais group experienced a 30-minute Awareness Through Movement session whilst the control group listened to a narrative of the same duration. Pain was assessed pre and post intervention using the Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire. State anxiety was also measured pre and post intervention using the State Scale of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Multivariate Analyses of Variance showed that the Feldenkrais intervention was effective in reducing the affective dimension of pain (p < .05), but not the sensory or evaluative dimensions, nor state anxiety. These findings are discussed in relation to previous research and some of the theoretical concepts assumed to underlie the Feldenkrais Method. The clinical implication of the findings involves the potential for the Feldenkrais Method to complement existing modes of pain management for people experiencing chronic low back problems.

  139. Spire M. The Feldenkrais Method: An Interview with Anat Baniel. Medical Problems of Performing Artists. Dec. 1989, pp. 159-62 Describes the effectiveness of Feldenkrais method with musicians performing in pain.
  140. Steisel, Stephan G. The Clients Experience of the Psychological Elements in Functional Integration. Ph.D. Massachusetts School of Professional Psychology. University Microfilms, Ann Arbor, MI 1993 Qualitative.
  141. Stephens J. Feldenkrais method: background, research, and orthopaedic case studies. [Journal Article: Case Study, Tables/Charts] Orthopaedic Physical Therapy Clinics of North America. 2000 Sep; 9(3): 375-94. (46 ref). Peer Reviewed.

    Functional Integration and Awareness Through Movement are aspects of the Feldenkrais method that have been used successfully in the rehabilitation of people with orthopaedic problems. These methods include approaches to motor learning that can be used to facilitate change and integration in postural and general musculoskeletal control. This article describes the background and development of the Feldenkrais method, including its philosophic and scientific basis. An outcome survey of the use of the Feldenkrais method is presented along with four case studies that demonstrate the integration of this method into physical therapy practice. The Feldenkrais method is an excellent approach to use in the rehabilitation of people with orthopaedic physical problems.

  142. Stephens J, Miller TH. Feldenkrais Method: Learning to move through your life with grace and ease. (Or optimizing your potential for living.) Chapter in Davis C. (Ed.), Complimentary Therapies in Rehabilitation: Evidence for Efficacy, Prevention and Wellness. Chapter in Davis C. (Ed.), Complimentary Therapies in Rehabilitation: Evidence for Efficacy, Prevention and Wellness. Slack Publishers, February 2004.

    Review chapter which includes discussion of cases in which Awareness Through Movement and Functional Integration were used. Review of research available through 2003.

  143. Stephens J. Call S. Evans K. Glass M. Gould C. Lowe J. Responses to ten Feldenkrais awareness through movement lessons by four women with multiple sclerosis: improved quality of life. [Journal Article: Research, Tables/Charts] Physical Therapy Case Reports. 1999 Mar; 2(2): 58-69. (43 ref). Peer Reviewed.

    Four women with multiple sclerosis who were ambulatory and worked full-time participated in 10 Awareness Through Movement classes over 10 weeks. Assessment before and after the series of classes included the Incapacity Status and the Environmental Status Scales of the Minimal Record of Disability, the Fatigue Severity Scale, and the Index of Well-Being. Before each class and at the final data collection, each person was asked several questions about her medical and functional status. Analyses of walking and supine-to-stand were done using the PEAK Motus video motion analysis system. A follow-up interview was done with two women one year after the classes ended. Three of the four participants experienced an increase in symptoms at some time during the 10 weeks; nonetheless, all made improvements. Outcomes show that two broad areas of improvement were ease and steadiness of daily movement s, and sense of well-being. These Outcomes suggest that Awareness Through Movement is beneficial for some people with multiple sclerosis, although in different ways for each person.

  144. Stephens J. Davidson J. DeRosa J. Kriz M. Saltzman N. Lengthening the hamstring muscles without stretching using "awareness through movement. [Journal Article. Randomized Controlled Trial] Physical Therapy. 86(12):1641-50, 2006. Peer Reviewed.

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Passive stretching is widely used to increase muscle flexibility, but it has been shown that this process does not produce long-term changes in the viscoelastic properties of muscle as originally thought. The authors tested a method of lengthening hamstring muscles called "Awareness Through Movement" (ATM) that does not use passive stretching. SUBJECTS: Thirty-three subjects who were randomly assigned to ATM and control groups met the screening criteria and completed the intervention phase of the study. METHODS: The ATM group went through a process of learning complex active movements designed to increase length in the hamstring muscles. Hamstring muscle length was measured before and after intervention using the Active Knee Extension Test. RESULTS: The ATM group gained significantly more hamstring muscle length (+7.04 degrees ) compared with the control group (+1.15 degrees ). DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: The results suggest that muscle length can be increased through a process of active movement that does not involve stretching. Further research is needed to investigate this finding

  145. Stephens J. DuShuttle D. Hatcher C. Shmunes J. Slaninka C. Use of awareness through movement improves balance and balance confidence in people with multiple sclerosis: a randomized controlled study. [Journal Article, Clinical Trial, Research, Tables/Charts] Neurology Report. 2001 Jun; 25(2): 39-49. (33 ref). Peer Reviewed.

    This study examined the effectiveness of a structured, group motor learning process, Awareness Through Movement (ATM), on balance, balance confidence, and self-efficacy. Twelve people with multiple sclerosis were randomly assigned to either ATM or control groups. The ATM group participated in 8 classes, 2 to 4 hours each while the control group participated in educational sessions, over 10 weeks. Six outcome measures were used: the Basic Balance Master modified Clinical Test of Sensory Interaction in Balance (mCTSIB) and Limits of Stability tests; the Activities-specific Balance Confidence Scale; prospective falls; Equiscale; and the Multiple Sclerosis Self-Efficacy Scale. The ATM group exhibited significantly improved mCTSIB scores indicating an average center of pressure position closer to theoretical center, had significantly fewer abnormal mCTSIB tests, and demonstrated improved balance confidence compared to controls. There was a trend toward improvement in all other measures in the ATM group compared to controls. These results suggest that this type of motor learning intervention can be effective in improving a variety of physical and psychological parameters related to balance and postural control.

  146. Stephens JL, C Pendergast, BA Roller, and RS Weiskittel. Learning to Improve Mobility and Quality of Life in a Well Elderly Population: The Benefits of Awareness Through Movement. IFF Academy, Feldenkrais Research Journal 2, http://www.iffresearchjournal.org/ (2005). Peer Reviewed.

    Objectives: This study tested the hypothesis that an alternative movement learning method, Awareness Through Movement, would produce improvements in coordination, mobility, economy of movement and quality of life in older adults. Methods: A group of 31 older adults was studied using a prospective, repeated measures control group design. The SF-36 was used to assess health status - quality of life. Video motion analysis was used to collect data on walking and on a floor to stand transfer movement. Results: Coordination of the transfer movement improved significantly in the experimental group. Vitality and mental health scores also improved significantly in this group. Interesting differences between young-old and old-old changes were observed. Conclusions: Awareness Through Movement may be an additional effective method for pursuing the objectives of Healthy People 2010.

  147. Stephens JL, Cates P, Jentes E, Perich A, Silverstein J, Staab E, duShuttle D, Hatcher C, Shmunes J, Slaninka C. Awareness Through Movement Improves Quality of Life in People with Multiple Sclerosis. J Neurol Phys Ther. 27(4): 170, 2003. Abstract, Poster presented at APTA Combined Section Meetings, Nashville TN, February, 2004. Peer Reviewed.
  148. Ullmann G, Williams HG, Hussey J, Durstine JL, McClenaghan BA. Effects of feldenkrais exercises on balance, mobility, balance confidence, and gait performance in community-dwelling adults age 65 and older. J Altern Complement Med. 2010 Jan;16(1):97-105. Peer Reviewed.

    BACKGROUND: Falls and fall-related injuries are a major public health concern, a financial challenge for health care providers, and critical issues for older adults. Poor balance and limited mobility are major risk factors for falls. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine effects of Feldenkrais exercises in improving balance, mobility, and balance confidence in older adults. METHODS: Participants (N = 47, mean age 75.6) were randomly assigned to a Feldenkrais group (FG, n = 25) or to a control group (CG, n = 22). The FG group attended a 5-week Feldenkrais program, 60 minutes three times per week, while the CG group was a waitlist control. The outcome measures were balance (tandem stance), mobility (Timed Up and Go), gait characteristics (GAITRite Walkway System), balance confidence (Balance Confidence Scale; ABC), and fear of falling (Falls Efficacy Scale). Pre- and post-tests were conducted. RESULTS: After completion of the program, balance (p = 0.030) and mobility (p = 0.042) increased while fear of falling (p = 0.042) decreased significantly for the FG group. No other significant changes were observed. However, participants of the FG group showed improvements in balance confidence (p = 0.054) and mobility while performing concurrently a cognitive task (p = 0.067). CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that Feldenkrais exercises are an effective way to improve balance and mobility, and thus offer an alternative method to help offset age-related declines in mobility and reduce the risk of falling among community-dwelling older adults. A long-term follow-up study of balance and mobility is warranted. Further research is needed to identify whether Feldenkrais exercises may impact cognitive processes.

  149. Ullmann, G, Williams, HG. Can Feldenkrais exercises ameliorate subclinical depressive symptoms in older adults? A pilot study. J S C Med Assoc. 2011;107 Suppl: 7-10. Peer Reviewed.
  150. VanZanten, Virginia. Move Freely: The Feldenkrais Method improves movement through awareness. Psychology Today, Nov/Dec2010, Vol. 43(6): 41-41.
  151. Vollmer, Fred. How do I move my body?. Journal Article] Journal of Mind & Behavior. Vol 19(4) Fal 1998, 369-377. Inst of Mind & Behavior, US. Peer Reviewed.

    (from the journal abstract) What is it for me to do something is the question discussed in the present paper. It has been suggested that my doings are elicited by tryings, intentions, and other causal mechanisms. These theories do not offer any convincing analysis of what it is for me to act. Insight is sought by looking at some case studies involving temporary loss of the ability to move one's body. What the case studies show, I conclude, is that when I move my body in the normal way, I do not first have to do something else that causes my body to move. Normal actions are events bodily beings can generate spontaneously (directly). An essential condition for having this kind of control is inside (proprioceptive) awareness of the body. When inner awareness of the body is lost, control can be taken over by visual awareness . But then movement loses its spontaneous character and depends on planning and intense concentration. One can think of the self ("I") from which my actions flow, as the mental life to which they belong, or as the consciousness that controls them.

  152. Vrantsidis F, Hill KD, Moore K, Webb R, et al.. Getting Grounded gracefully: Effectiveness and Acceptability of Feldenkrais in Improving Balance and Related Outcomes for Older People: A Randomized Trial. J Aging & Physical Activity, 17(1): 57-76, 2009. Peer Reviewed.

    The Getting Grounded Gracefully program, based on the Awareness Through Movement lessons of the Feldenkrais Method, was designed to improve balance and function in older people. Fifty-five participants (mean age 75, 85% female) were randomised to the intervention (twice weekly group classes over 8 weeks) or the control group (continued with their usual activity) after being assessed at baseline, and then reassessed eight weeks later. Significant improvement was identified for the intervention group relative to the control group using ANOVA between groups repeated measures analysis for the Modified Falls Efficacy Scale score (p = 0.003) and gait speed (p = 0.028), and a strong trend evident in the Timed Up and Go (p = 0.056). High class attendance (88%) and survey feedback indicate that the program was viewed positively by participants and may therefore be acceptable to other older people. Further investigation of the Getting Grounded Gracefully program is warranted.

  153. Wendell LL. Some effects of the Feldenkrais Method on Parkinsons symptoms and function. Unpublished case study by LL Wendell client and Marilyn Johnson, Feldenkrais Practitioner. June 2000. This is a brief, interesting, single case study documenting observations on changes in function before and after a year of Feldenkrais lessons..
  154. Wennemer HK; Borg-Stein J; Gomba L; Delaney B; Rothmund A; Barlow D; Breeze G.. Functionally oriented rehabilitation program for patients with fibromyalgia: preliminary results. American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation (AM J PHYS MED REHABIL), 2006 Aug; 85(8): 659-66 (19 ref). journal article - questionnaire/scale, research, tables/charts. Major Subjects: Fibromyalgia – Rehabilitation, Occupational Therapy – Methods, Physical Therapy – Methods.. Peer Reviewed.

    Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To evaluate function and disability in patients with fibromyalgia before and after participation in a functionally oriented, multidisciplinary, 8-wk treatment program. DESIGN: A total of 23 patients who met American College of Rheumatology criteria for the diagnosis of fibromyalgia were enrolled in the study. Outcome measures included: range of motion, 6-min walk test, a modified Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire, a modified SF-36 Physical Functioning Scale, and the Fibromyalgia Health Assessment Questionnaire. Pretreatment and posttreatment scores were analyzed using paired t tests. RESULTS: All subjects completed the program, and there were no reported injuries. Three subjects failed to complete the survey instruments at the conclusion of the study. Intention to treat analysis including these subjects was carried out but did not significantly change results. For the remaining subjects (n = 20), a significant improvement was found on the Physical Functioning Scale (P = 0.01). Trends toward improvement on the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (P = 0.40) and Fibromyalgia Health Assessment Questionnaire (P = 0.14) were seen but did not achieve statistical significance. Range of motion testing revealed significant improvements in lumbar spine extension (P < 0.001), straight-leg raise (P < 0.001), cervical spine flexion (P < 0.01), cervical spine rotation (P < 0.05), and cervical spine side bending (P < 0.05). Distance traveled during the 6-min walk test increased significantly (P < 0.01), whereas perceived exertion as measured by the Borg scale did not change. There were no injuries or other adverse consequences of the program. CONCLUSIONS: This study utilized multiple functional outcome measures to demonstrate improved function and decreased disability in patients with fibromyalgia. Our patients reported significantly improved physical function after participation in the 8-wk intensive multidisciplinary treatment program. This progressive, functionally based exercise training program was well tolerated by all participants and outlines an effective exercise prescription for patients with fibromyalgia. Fibromyalgia patients in this study responded favorably to a treatment program that focused on function instead of pain. Instrumentation: Six-Minute Walk Test (6MWT) Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ) [modified] Borg Scale of Perceived Exertion Fibromyalgia Health Assessment Questionnaire (FHAQ) 10-item SF-36 Physical Functioning Scale (PFS) [modified]

  155. Wildman F, Stephens J, Aum L. Feldenkrais Method. In Novey DW (ed.), Clinicians Complete Reference to Complementary and Alternative Medicine. Mosby Publishers, St. Louis, MO. pp.393-406, 2000. This is a good summary article about the method with a review of research literature through 1998..
  156. Wolf, Steven L. Commentary on "Perception of postural limits in elderly nursing home and day care participants.". Journals of Gerontology: Series A: Biological Sciences & Medical Sciences. Vol 54A(3) Mar 1999, B131. Gerontological Society of America, US. Peer Reviewed.

    Comments on the article by S. Robinovitch and T. Cronin (see record 1999-10974-001). Wolf acknowledges that there may be merit to the hypothesis that older adults reach capabilities may be associated with a lack of awareness of their movement capabilities, potentially predisposing them to fall. Wolf also offers an alternative interpretation, that older Ss are aware of their capabilities but overestimate because of their concern for eminent loss of independence. Older Ss will overestimate if the alternative is to reveal behaviors that might threaten the security of maintained living in their immediate environment or the life to which they have become accustomed. He suggests that other factors should be examined, such as comorbidities, past falls history, and movement limitations as covariates may lead to further clarification to interpreting the data.

  157. Wright, J. Bodies, meanings and movement : a comparison of the language of a physical education lesson and a Feldenkrais movement class.. [Article] Sport, education and society (Abingdon, England) 5(1), Mar 2000, 35-49 Total No. of Pages: 15. Peer Reviewed.

    In Western societies since (and probably before) Descartes, the human body has been objectified and alienated from the self, something to be subdued, managed and more recently worked upon as symbol of self-value. Sport and exercise are sites where the objectification of the body has been traditionally promoted. In recent times with the scientisation of elite sport and the commodification of bodies in sport, the objectification of the body has taken new forms and achieved greater prominence. Physical education as the school site for body work has been implicated in the process of objectification and alienation. The traditional practices of physical education, including choices in teacher language, position bodies as objects, and movement as an instrumental outcome of practice. Not all movement practices, however, subscribe to this approach. This paper will compare the language practices of teachers in a physical education lesson and a Feldenkrais movement class as these constitute different forms of embodiment, different selves. Its purpose is to provide further resources for critical reflection on the ways in which pedagogical practices position students and contribute to the shaping of particular forms of subjectivity.

  158. Zając, Katarzyna. / Healing is Learning, and Learning is Healing Somatic Education as Exemplified by Cortical Field Reeducation. Physiotherapy (12308323) 2006, Vol. 14 Issue 4, p93 11p.. Peer Reviewed.

    Abstract: Somatic education promotes staying healthy rather than recovering health. The main thesis of somatic education is a reminder that every living organism has an innate ability for self regulation. Self regulation is possible because of continually mastered proprioception. Experiencing of the body from within, or recognition of habitual patterns, happens through different somatic techniques. The pioneers of somatic education include Elsa Gindler, Charlotte Selver, Frederic Alexander and Moshe Feldenkrais. Each of them designed a separate education system based on self experiences. In my article, I will present one of the contemporary somatic education methods - Cortical Field Reeducation (CFR) based on the teachings of Moshe Feldenkrais, and including emotional, energetic, and spiritual aspects of learning and healing. I will present foundations, methodology including detailed description of one of the movement lessons, and applications of Cortical Field Reeducation.